Osteo-skeletal diseases such as osteosarcomas have affected youth throughout the world. In the United States alone, 1,000 new cases are diagnosed each year where half of these diagnoses are in children and teenagers. With a lack of effective treatment plans, many engineers have utilized both mesenchymal stem cells as well as tissue/bone grafts. In this review, we compare the use of both of these methods as possible treatment plans for patients who suffer from osteoporosis or osteosarcomas. To do so a comprehensive review was done to understand the science behind these conditions and the new methods being tested and developed to help fight these conditions. In research, a very promising avenue in the Precision Medicine field has proven to be somewhat successful. Utilizing tissue engineering and genetic testing, an ex vivo evaluation of a biopsy would be done, then a synthetic polymer made, under constraints provided from genetic testing, to eliminate rejection. A scaffold would be made to be used as a graft to replace the diseased area. Another possible treatment is the Ôcaging inÕ of the tumor to suppress growth and diminish the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. With these various findings, we conclude that an interdisciplinary approach for treating osteo-skeletal diseases has found great success while using materials that will not be rejected by the human body. This form of treatment will be essential for future treatments that require high compatibility with the bodyÕs immune system, including transplants, grafts, and highly invasive surgical procedures.