Modern military conflicts are producing dramatic increases in a new class of “silent injuries”, in part due to the changing manners by which war is waged and to better protective equipment. Foremost among these are traumatic brain injury (TBI), post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, sleep disorders, and various mental health issues. An estimated 19.6% of all U.S. service men and women, for example, suffer from some degree of TBI, called one of the signature injuries of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. This study describes several operations research modeling approaches to optimize the overall design, effectiveness, and capacity for detecting and treating signature military injuries. Proposed modeling approaches include probability networks, fuzzy logic, logistic regression, neural networks, Markov, and location-allocation models.