Nano-Enabled Batteries, End of Life, and Product Stewardship Policies in the United States

Abstract

This research look at emerging nano-enabled battery technologies and considers the fate of these technologies in the context of the existing infrastructure for battery collection and recycling policies and programs in the United States. In doing so, we ask three questions: 1. In what types of applications are nano-enabled batteries likely to be used in the near future? 2. How are conventional batteries used in these applications currently managed at end of life? 3. How will the existing infrastructure of battery collection and recycling affect or be affected by a new generation of nano-enabled batteries?