Environmental Impact and Economic Assessment of Manufacturing of Cathodes and Anodes in CNT Lithium-Ion Batteries

Abstract

Environmental Impact and Economic Assessment of Manufacturing of Cathodes and Anodes in CNT Lithium-Ion Batteries æAli Hakimian, Jacqueline A. Isaacs, and Thomas Cullinane Northeastern University, Boston MA 02115 æCarbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties that make them an attractive element in sensors, electronics, and batteries. Recent advances in nanotechnology have resulted in the development of an advanced battery enhanced with carbon nanotubes that has a much greater energy density than the common lithium-ion battery. æAn environmental assessment of the cathodes and the anodes of the manufacturing phase of CNT lithium-ion batteries were conducted by applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA is an approach for determining the potential environmental impacts from any process. The life cycle inventory data was collected for all of the inputs (raw materials, energy and equipment used) and outputs (emissions to land, water and air) by observation of the battery manufacturing processes and discussions with experts. The impact assessment results were obtained by using a professional LCA tool, SimaPro». SimaPro» enables first order prediction of the environmental footprint of the process by using life cycle inventory data. A process-based technical cost model has been developed for the cathodes and the anodes of CNT lithium-ion batteries. This was accomplished through the development of a bottom-up process cost model that considers materials cost, machines cost, labors cost, energy cost, and all other associated costs with the total cost of lithium-ion batteries. The model has been developed for a specific power and energy level.