As an integral part of ethical conduct of research, federal guidelines require an independent review of protocols involving human subjects before an investigator can begin the study. The NU IRB is governed by the federal regulations set forth in 45 CFR 46, Protection of Human Subjects. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) is the federal administrative agency that monitors the IRB, its activities, and institutional compliance.