Consequences of TBI

Common consequences of TBI across the lifespan may be described as being of three major types: cognitive-communicative (e.g., attention, memory, social appropriateness), physical (e.g., headaches, hearing, vision), and psychosocial/emotional deficits (e.g., anxiety, depression, irritability). Specific consequences vary from person to person depending on such factors as site of injury, severity of injury (mild/moderate/severe), extent of injury, and age at time of injury.  Each of these types of consequences impacts the others.  For example,  having a headache may make it harder to remember things, which, in turn, may cause increased stress.  Feeling particularly discouraged on a given day may increase fatigue, making concentration more difficult.  The goal of rehabilitation and other supports is to help TBI survivors and their families deal with these consequences and maximize everyday function and quality of life.

Consequences of TBI VennSome common consequences of TBI are listed below:

Cognitive-Communicative:
-Lack of concentration
-Limited attention span
-Decreased awareness
-Impaired communication skills
-Difficulty planning
-Difficulty writing
-Difficulty reading
-Difficulty making judgments
-Short-term memory loss

Physical:
-Speech difficulties
-Vision loss
-Hearing loss
-Headaches
-Lack of motor coordination
-Tightness of muscles
-Weakness of voluntary movements
-Fatigue
-Loss of balance
-Confused appearance
-Loss of consciousness

Psychosocial/Emotional:
-Anxiety
-Depression
-Decreased self-esteem
-Decreased motivation
-Denying things to be true
-Mood swings
-Self-centeredness
-Inability to control emotions
-Personality changes