This gap in edu­ca­tion engage­ment has dire eco­nomic con­se­quences for boys. A 2011 Brook­ings Insti­tu­tion report quan­ti­fies the eco­nomic decline of the median male: For men ages 25 to 64 with no high school diploma, median annual earn­ings have declined 66 per­cent since 1969; for men with only a high school diploma, wages declined by 47 per­cent. Mil­lions of male workers, say the Brook­ings authors, have been “unhitched from the engine of growth.”  The Col­lege Board deliv­ered this dis­turbing mes­sage in a 2011 report about His­panic and African-​​American boys and young adults: “Nearly half of young men of color age 15 to 24 who grad­uate from high school will end up unem­ployed, incar­cer­ated or dead.” Working-​​class white boys are faring only slightly better. When econ­o­mist Andrew Sum and his col­leagues at the Center for Labor Market Studies at North­eastern Uni­ver­sity exam­ined gender dis­par­i­ties in the Boston Public Schools, they found that for the class of 2007, among blacks and His­panics, there were 186 females for every 100 males attending a four-​​year col­lege or uni­ver­sity. For white stu­dents: 153 females to every 100 males.

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