Chen­g­long Zhao, post­doc­toral fellow in engi­neering sci­ence and mechanics, Penn State, designed and con­ducted the exper­i­ment; Yongmin Liu, assis­tant pro­fessor of mechan­ical and indus­trial engi­neering, and elec­trical and com­puter engi­neering, North­eastern Uni­ver­sity, worked with Nicholas Fang, asso­ciate pro­fessor of mechan­ical engi­neering, MIT, to ana­lyze the results and develop sim­u­la­tions; and Yanhui Zhao, grad­uate stu­dent in engi­neering sci­ence and mechanics, Penn State, fab­ri­cated the materials.

The National Insti­tutes of Health, the National Sci­ence Foun­da­tion, and the Penn State Center for Nanoscale Sci­ence funded this study.

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