You’ll prob­ably want to lounge around in your air-​​conditioned home this weekend, when tem­per­a­tures are expected to hit triple digits. But if you dare ven­ture out­side, Sab­rina E. Noel and Esther Carver who work in the Depart­ment of Health Sci­ences in Northeastern’s Bouvé Col­lege of Health Sci­ences, offer tips for staying cool.

What are the signs that someone has been out in the heat for too long?

There are at least three signs, including heat cramps, heat exhaus­tion and heat stroke.

–Heat cramps are painful mus­cular cramps and spasms that are caused by loss of fluids and are brought on by stren­uous activity in high heat. These are often an early sign that the body is having trouble with the heat. If you are suf­fering from heat cramps, then move to a cooler place, rest, and drink small amounts of fluids every 15 minutes.

–Heat exhaus­tion typ­i­cally involves the loss of body fluids through heavy sweating during stren­uous exer­cise or phys­ical labor in high heat. Symp­toms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; heavy sweating; headache; nausea; dizzi­ness; weak­ness; and exhaus­tion. Move to a cooler place, drink small amounts of cool water and watch for changes in your condition.

–Heat stroke — also known as sun­stroke — is a life-​​threatening con­di­tion in which a person’s tem­per­a­ture con­trol system stops working and the body is unable to cool itself. Signs of heat stroke include hot, red skin which may be dry or moist; changes in con­scious­ness; vom­iting; and high body tem­per­a­ture. Move the person to a cooler area and call 911 imme­di­ately. Immerse them in or spray them with cold water, if pos­sible, until help arrives.

What are some tips to keep your body tem­per­a­ture regulated?

Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, even if you do not feel thirsty. Early signs of dehy­dra­tion are thirst, flushed skin, fatigue, increased body tem­per­a­ture, faster breathing and pulse rate, fol­lowed by dizzi­ness, increased weak­ness and labored breathing with exer­cise. If you must be out­doors, start hydrating sev­eral hours before begin­ning your activ­i­ties and try to schedule out­door activ­i­ties in the morning or evening, when it is cooler. Take fre­quent breaks if you must work outdoors.

Wear loose-​​fitting, light­weight, light-​​colored clothing and avoid dark colors that absorb the sun’s heat. You should also avoid hot, enclosed places, such as cars. Never leave chil­dren or pets unat­tended in a car parked in the sun.

What foods are the best to eat when the weather is hot, and why?

Eat solid foods that supply a good amount of water like let­tuce, water­melon, oranges, grape­fruits and yogurt. Avoid alco­holic and sugar-​​sweetened bev­er­ages, which can dehy­drate your body.

Pay careful atten­tion to food safety in the heat by keeping cold foods below 40 degrees and hot foods above 140 degrees. Don’t let per­ish­ables, such as meat, fish, poultry and dairy foods sit out for more than one hour.