Administrative Law
This course provides an introduction to the legal doctrines designed to empower and constrain government agencies and officials in their daily practice of governance. Topics include the constitutional status of administrative agencies, due process, the Administrative Procedure Act and the availability and standards of judicial review of agency actions. The course emphasizes the historical evolution of the modern administrative state and the regulatory agency’s peculiar role in our system of governance.
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Advanced Criminal Procedure: Adjudication
This course closely examines some of the constitutional complexities in the prosecution and defense of criminal cases in state and federal courts. Students investigate how the law fashions the adjudicatory process and how the law evaluates what is “fair” and what is “legitimate” in formally deciding on whom to impose punishment. The course covers, among other things, pretrial detention, right to counsel, plea bargaining, discovery, trial processes, and sentencing.
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Advanced Criminal Procedure: Investigation
During this course, students will examine the law of criminal investigation. The primary focus of the course will be to present and discuss leading Supreme Court decisions in the field of constitutional criminal procedure. Students will study decisions which apply the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Amendments and the Due Process Clause to the criminal justice process and the procedures through which criminal laws are enforced.
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Advanced Criminal Procedure: Wrongful Convictions and Post Conviction Remedies
The emergence of DNA testing has not only assisted law enforcement in solving crimes, but it has also helped to expose a problem that many observers of the criminal justice system have long suspected: that a number of actually innocent prisoners have been convicted in the United States. Given that biological evidence suitable for post-conviction DNA testing is available in only a smattering of cases, the exonerations generated by DNA represent only the tip of the innocence iceberg, so to speak. This class will explore (1) the primary factors that contribute to the phenomenon of wrongful convictions, (2) the state and federal procedures through which post-conviction claims are litigated and (3) potential reforms to protect against the conviction of the innocent.
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Advanced Legal and Interdisciplinary Research
This course teaches students how to research specialized legal topics, highlighting both legal and non-legal sources that reflect modern practice. The course will use a combination of lectures, interactive hands-on sessions, real life examples, and an in-depth final research and writing project. Students may explore state, federal and international primary laws and regulations, as well as relevant non-legal sources and how they interact with the law. Both print and electronic sources will be researched. The course will highlight different specialized topics such as Health Law, Environmental Law, etc.
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Advanced Legal Research
The course is designed to prepare law students for research in practice, clerkships, and legal scholarship. Students will evaluate legal research sources and use them effectively, expand skills in primary and secondary U.S. legal sources, become aware of non-legal information resources that could be useful to legal practice, and get an overview of public international law and foreign legal research. Since learning legal research requires a hands-on approach, students are required to complete assignments and in-class exercises. This course will emphasize cost-effective research, including print and Internet sources. The topics covered in this survey course will vary from year to year and may include immigration law, tax law, business law, environmental law and cultural property law among others.
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Advanced Legal Skills in Social Context
This six credit course provides a select group of upper level students with advanced lawyering training in examining the role of law in our diverse society, by looking critically and analytically at societal assumptions, beliefs and values codified in all legal doctrine and to grapple with emerging law. Students who take ALSSC are also trained to act as lawyering fellows for law office teams of first year students in their required companion course, LSSC. In this capacity, ALSSC students also develop and manage the implementation of social justice projects that seek to use law as a tool for social change.
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Alternative Dispute Resolution
Law school courses focus almost exclusively on adjudication as a model for resolving legal disputes, yet only a fraction of disputes actually go to trial. This course exposes students to the many alternatives to trial, including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, fact-finding and hybrid combinations of these methods. After the characteristics of these various models are examined, simulations drawn from a number of different areas (such as family, environmental, commercial and consumer law) will be used to explore the conceptual, practical and ethical issues that come up in different contexts. Guest speakers and audiovisual materials will be included. A final paper or final examination will be required.
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American Legal Thought: Traditional and Critical
This course contrasts critical-theoretic approaches to law (e.g., legal realism, critical legal studies, identity-based jurisprudence, socio-legal studies, transformative jurisprudence) with mainstream legal thinking. In part the course is an intellectual history of American law, and in part it addresses contemporary jurisprudence and legal theory. Drawing on students’ personal experience, the course also examines American legal education and the professional socialization of law students. A “big” question underlying the course is whether legal work is a medium in which one can pursue projects oriented toward political and social change. There is no prerequisite for this course, and no prior background in legal theory, history, or jurisprudence is needed. All students are expected to read the assigned texts very closely and participate in discussing them in class 
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Animal Law
Students will be introduced to a new and developing field of law regarding animals and their legal rights. As a formal discipline, this field is in its infancy, and thus, practitioners and scholars draw frequently from core areas of law to create theories pertaining to the legal rights of animals. This course will examine these theories and will address fundamental issues in animal law, such as the legal implications of animals being classified as property, the constitutional doctrine of standing as an obstacle to pursuing political, moral and ethical agendas on behalf of animals, and the modernization and criminalization of animal cruelty statutes. In addition, students will be exposed to the various international, federal and state laws enacted to protect the welfare and well-being of animals.
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Antitrust
The federal antitrust laws, first created to break apart the powerful business “trusts” of the late 1800s, have since been applied to markets as diverse as utilities, ski areas, sports leagues, copy machine repair services and computer hardware and software. This course will explore the core principles of antitrust law, with an emphasis on three substantive areas: monopolization, horizontal merger analysis, and agreements among competitors. Because antitrust cases and scholarship rely heavily upon economics, the course begins with an introduction to firm and market economics, and economic analysis plays a significant role in our discussions.
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Appellate Advocacy
This course covers the practical aspects of appellate practice, focusing on appellate brief writing and oral advocacy. Using a simulated lower court record, students will prepare a draft and a final version of an appellate brief and participate in two rounds of oral argument.
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Balancing Liberty and Security Seminar
This course will examine the challenges, obstacles and issues presented in the struggle to create a balance between securing our homeland and respecting the rights of all of those who call this land home. We will examine recent Supreme Court decisions (Handi, Rasul, and Padilla) as well as international perspectives on counterterrorism strategies. The course will include a discussion of the privacy and human rights issues that have arisen since September 11th and the ethical responsibility of lawyers adjudicating those issues. Students will take a take-home exam at the end of the quarter.
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Bankruptcy - Commercial Law
This course explores basic principles of consumer and business bankruptcy. We examine how the bankruptcy process works, the underlying policies that purport to justify the way the law is written and construed, and the mechanics of applying key sections of the federal Bankruptcy Code. To convey the liveliness and volatility of bankruptcy practice, and to provide an introduction to strategic thinking in bankruptcy, the course relies primarily on problem solving and discussion.
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Basic Income Taxation
This introductory tax course covers the fundamental concepts and operations in income taxation. Tax issues are raised in the context of typical lawyer-client situations: the employment contract (fringe benefits, employee business expenses), buying and selling a house and other property, personal injury expenses and recoveries, and running a small business. An important aspect in understanding the details covered will be comprehension of the economic policy objectives, and unintended results, of specific tax provisions such as capital gains taxation. The course is focused on the statute, cases and administrative law that define the income tax base. Tax rates are also examined and tax unit issues are covered for individual wage-earners, married couples, children living in the home, pensioners and small businesses organized as sole proprietorships.
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Bioethics and the Law
This course will focus on the intersection of law and bioethics and will consider how different ethical theories may guide legal decisions. Topics will include physician-assisted suicide, testing for HIV, reproductive technology, and rationing of health care. Students will be expected to write a research paper and share some of what they have learned with the class.
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Bioproperty
This seminar will examine how the law has enabled property in living organisms, including plants, animals, and people. Drawing upon case law, property theory, and multi-disciplinary commodification scholarship, participants will explore topics such as bioprospecting, frozen human embryos, patents in genetically engineered plants and animals, and markets in human organs.
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Business Bankruptcy - Commercial Law
This course deals with business reorganization under Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. The objective of Chapter 11 bankruptcy is to allow the debtor to modify and restructure its debt so that it can continue to operate its business. The course will cover matters that typically arise in a Chapter 11 case, such as the automatic stay, modification of debt, rejecting contracts, post-bankruptcy financing, creditors' claims, management of the debtor, and the plan of reorganization. The course will also address topical issues such as employee rights, retiree benefits, and mass tort claims, including asbestos and environmental claims.
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Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Clinic
CRRJ engages students in litigation, legislative and policy initiatives associated with anti-civil rights and other forms of racial violence in the United States. Students are assigned to investigate cases. Our docket includes cases that have been litigated and “cold cases. Students conduct research, obtain law enforcement and court files, interview witness and, where feasible, conduct field work. Students prepare case reports for publication on the CRRJ site.The weekly class focuses on lawyering skills, and the theory and practice of transitional and restorative justice. The clinic reproduces litigation firm practices; small groups work collaboratively on cases and other CRRJ projects. Students will benefit from grounding in Federal Courts and Evidence. 
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Civil Trial Practice
An introduction to the tactical and strategic problems commonly encountered in the trial of cases is the main objective of this course. Although the focus of class discussion is directed toward civil litigation, the techniques and problems are common to criminal cases. Attention is given to the forensic aspects of trial practice, techniques of direct and cross-examination, and opening and closing summations.
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Collective Bargaining
This course consists of a collective bargaining simulation exercise in which students participate in the process of negotiating a collective bargaining agreement. Students are divided into teams representing either management or labor and formulate proposals and counterproposals, and attempt to reconcile significant differences between the labor and management positions. Negotiators are required to operate within the context of the applicable statutory framework including the National Labor Relations Act, Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, Fair Labor Standards Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Every effort is made to simulate an actual collective bargaining negotiation.
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Community Business Law Clinic
The clinic requires students to devote twenty hours per week to providing legal services to low-income and underserved entrepreneurs under the supervision of clinical faculty and staff. The services provided will range from entity formation to financing and include attention to intellectual and real property issues and government regulation. •Preference will be given to students with relevant academic learning, including Corporations and the Community Economic Development Seminar, or relevant practical experience.
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Comparative Law: Law, Markets and Democracy in East Asia
Today, we see a variety of market developments and rule of law programs around the world promulgated by such international institutions as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the Asian Development Bank. Markets are viewed as the panacea to the ills associated with economic development, and "rule of law" is synonymous with democracy, equality, and universal rights. This course examines the truth of the above assumptions by a study of the legal systems in East Asian countries, selected for their varying stages of economic development. The course will examine three areas: the cultural forces behind legal systems; the forces of economic development and the political, social and legal institutions established to promote this national goal; and finally, the intended and unintended consequences of these legal institutions. Will the injection of these institutions also result in the promotion of democracy, equality (with a focus on gender), and human rights? By looking at the theoretical underpinnings of legal systems different from the United States, and by the use of comparative methodology, students are encouraged to question the cultural assumptions underlying the American legal system as well as the power of law as a force for social change. Students are encouraged to do research on a topic of their choice, focusing on one aspect of a legal system other than the U.S.
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Constitutional Litigation
In the first phase of the course, the class considers strategic and tactical decision-making in constitutional litigation. In the second phase, students report on the process of litigating cases involving constitutional issues. Relying on briefs, court records and interviews with counsel, students report to the class and prepare a research paper setting out their findings. The paper is a major commitment of time and energy; only students with a significant interest in litigation of constitutional questions should apply. Papers are eligible to satisfy the writing requirement.
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Consumer Law
This course examines consumer transactions in formation, substance, and remedies. While the course will focus most on consumer credit, we will also examine consumer leasing, advertising; fraud; warranties; and product standards and safety.
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Copyright Law
This course examines the law of copyright in the United States, with some reference to international aspects.  We will discuss the scope of copyright protection, the formalities of securing copyright, the nature of the rights afforded by copyright law, the fair use doctrine, and copyright enforcement.  The course will place copyright in historical perspective, and consider tensions created by emerging industries.  The course is open to upper level students, without prerequisite.
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Corporate Finance: Transactions
This course provides an overview of corporate finance concepts and their relationship to corporate transactional practice. The course begins with coverage of basic corporate finance concepts, i.e., risk, valuation, present value, leverage, and diversification. The concepts are then discussed in the context of corporate transactions such as business restructurings, mergers and acquisitions, and initial public offerings. In addition to focusing on the conceptual underpinnings of corporate transactions, students will be required to understand how elements of a business deal get translated into drafting strategies.
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Corporate Taxation
An introduction to Subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code and an exercise in reading a short but difficult statute. Among topics covered are taxation of dividends, stock redemptions, liquidations, distributions, and taxable and tax-free sales of corporate stock and assets. Prerequisite is Basic Income Taxation.

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Corporations
This course relates to the formation, financial structure, and governance of business enterprises, especially incorporated businesses. Partnerships, limited partnerships, limited liability companies and limited liability partnerships are also explored, principally as they compare to the corporate form. The topics studied include: rights of creditors to hold principals of the enterprise liable; distribution of control within the corporation; fiduciary duties of directors and officers; key aspects of the federal securities laws (including the regulation of insider trading and proxies); organic changes (such as mergers); shifts in control (such as takeovers and freeze-outs); and legal implications of the roles of corporations in society. The course introduces some of the specialized concepts explored in detail in courses on Securities Regulation and Corporate Finance.
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Criminal Defense Advocacy Externship
Criminal defense demands a great deal from its practitioners.  These demands are born from the humbling recognition of the gravity of the responsibility involved in representing another human being whose freedoms are at risk.  To develop the skill and the confidence to meet these demands is the goal of the course.  Achievement of the goal necessarily requires recognition and honing of those necessary skills.  The course has two components:  a simulation based seminar and an externship placement for twelve hours a week.  The seminar provides an opportunity to learn and practice critical lawyering skills and the placement a chance to see those skills put into practice.  Students will be evaluated on effort and performance in mastery of the components of criminal defense.
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Criminal Trial Practice
Lectures on cases tried in state and federal courts, from arrest to appeal, are used to highlight criminal trial practice. One case is used throughout in which students are assigned roles including defense attorney, prosecutor, judge, witness (expert and lay), juror, clerk and defendant. Materials are based on actual cases. Emphasis is on federal criminal trials.
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Critical Legal Approaches to Race
This course focuses on selected issues raised by the concept of “race” in law and society. Students explore the historical uses of race in legislation, law enforcement, and judicial decisions as well as the legal implications of emancipation, pan-African, civil rights, and nationalist social movements within the United States and outside it. We then explore key contemporary theoretical and practical approaches to race, racism, and ethnicity under the rubric of Critical Race Theory. Such approaches include “storytelling” narratives, anti-essentialism, intersectionality/multidimensionality, “praxis,” and post-modernism.
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Cross-border Litigation (was Transnational Litigation)

This course presents advanced topics of civil procedure to reflect the realities of litigation in a globalized world. Using examples ranging from defective products in a global supply chain to corporate violations of human rights, it focuses on commercial and civil litigation in US courts in cases involving a cross-border issue. The course discusses jurisdiction over foreign parties (including multinational corporations), service of process abroad, obtaining evidence abroad, choice of law and the application of foreign law, recognition of foreign judgments in the US and recognition of US judgments abroad, cross-border litigation strategy, and provides an overview of international arbitration issues. This course takes a pragmatic approach and provides an opportunity to build oral and written litigation skills. It complements courses such as Private Litigation for Social Change, Federal Courts, International Law and Human Rights in the Global Economy.

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Current Issues in Health Law and Policy
This seminar will examine recent debates in health law and policy through discussion of current events, proposed legislation, and scholarly articles in the legal, medical, and public policy literatures. Weekly topics will depend in part on student interest, but will likely include federal health care reform, malpractice liability reform, obesity, health disparities, regulation of pharmaceutical promotion, and other issues related to health care access, quality, and financing. Requirements include weekly readings, weekly attendance and participation, a brief presentation of one health law-related current event, a research paper of at least 20 pages on any approved health law-related topic, and an oral presentation of the research paper. Previous health-related coursework or work experience is recommended but not required.
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Disability Law
This course explores how the law treats individuals with disabilities. We will analyze what is meant by the term “disability” and consider constitutional review of state actions discriminating against individuals with disabilities. Particular attention will be given to the the rights and obligations created by the Rehabilitation Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The rights of individuals with disabilities to be educated, work, receive health care, and enjoy public accommodations will be considered in depth. This course is designed for students wishing to represent individuals with disabilities as well as students who may represent employers and public accommodations.
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Domestic Violence Clinic
The School of Law’s Domestic Violence Institute offers an upper-level clinic focused on violence prevention and criminal intervention at the Roxbury and Dorchester Divisions of the Boston Municipal Court. In this clinic, students develop the advocacy skills most useful in assisting victims of domestic and sexual abuse in the often chaotic environment of our busiest urban courts. While students will assist a relatively wide range of clients in a series of courtroom hearings, emphasis is placed on understanding the complex dynamics of intimate partner violence, establishing collaborative client relationships, assessing lethality and safety planning, and assisting the client to negotiate a legal system that is often incapable of meeting their needs for protection. The clinic also trains students to participate in a broader community-based response to domestic violence and to work collaboratively across agencies and disciplines to meet the many legal and non-legal needs of their clients related to abuse but not addressed in municipal court proceedings.
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Drug Law and Policy
The field of Drug Law is vast, spanning the discovery, manufacture, distribution, and control of agents and devices that alter the human condition. This course provides an introduction to the regulatory regime created by the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act and the Food and Drug Administration, contrasts this regime with the space occupied by the Controlled Substances Act and the Drug Enforcement Agency, and maps out connections to key international laws and institutions. In addition to traditional content on the drug approval process, we will examine topics such as clinical trials, the prescription drug overdose epidemic, tobacco litigation, the marijuana reform movement, and global access to essential medicines. The course is intended for students contemplating legal practice in the pharmaceutical industry, those thinking critically about the origins and directions of domestic and international drug control, as well as those generally interested in the interplay of law, policy, and public health. Students will be expected to participate actively and to conduct research and writing.
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Education Law
A survey of current issues in U.S. education law including high stakes testing, "No Child Left Behind", the charter school movement, vouchers, church/state issues, home schooling, and school funding.
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Elder Law
In this course we will look at legal and policy questions related to aging individuals. Older Americans face an increasing number of legal questions involving entitlement to public benefits, protection of property, utilization of medical resources, health care decision-making, and interaction with legal and financial institutions. Topics that will be covered will include Medicaid benefits, Medicare benefits, Veterans Benefits for elderly veterans and their spouses, age discrimination, nursing home institutionalization, income maintenance (social security benefits, pensions etc.), elder abuse, consumer fraud targeted at older consumers, guardianships, conservatorships, competency and capacity, alternatives to guardianships and conservatorships, end of life issues, tax issues in elder law and estate planning for elders. Ethical issues that arise when representing the elderly will also be discussed.
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Employment Discrimination
This course focuses on the rights of workers to be free of discrimination in the workplace, and the obligations of employers to provide a discrimination-free workplace. Emphasis is placed on the scope and limitations of fair employment statutes, including definitions of employee and employer, types of actionable discrimination, shifting burdens of proof and other definitional or procedural issues that frequently determine the outcome of cases. The course will primarily address Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, but will also cover other state and federal anti-discrimination laws. We will not only discuss litigation, but will also address approaches that responsible employers might take to develop effective anti-discrimination policies.
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Employment Law — Compensation, Benefits and Retirement
This course surveys the legal and policy issues concerning minimum wage and wage-payment laws, regulation of working time and overtime premiums, family & medical leave, unemployment insurance, COBRA, Social Security and pensions and ERISA. It stresses close reading of statutes and administrative regulations. The problems of low-wage workers receive special emphasis.
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Employment Law — Job Security & Rights
This course surveys the legal and policy issues concerning the employment relationship, focusing on hiring and firing, job security, non-competition agreements, job-related intellectual property, employer control of employee conduct on- and off-duty rights, employee privacy, mass dismissals and plant closings and employment arbitration. The problems of low-wage workers receive special emphasis.
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Entertainment Law
Entertainment Law involves the study of legal principles and business practices of the entertainment industry, with a focus on such matters as they exist in the film, television and music industries, as well as publishing, video games, emerging media and the Internet. The course is divided generally into four segments: Intellectual Property (including idea submissions, copyright, trademark and privacy and publicity rights); Representation of Entertainers (including the roles of agents, managers, lawyers and unions); Contracts, Credits and Compensation; and Restrictions on Entertainment Content (including defamation, discrimination, obscenity and indecency, and violence). The focus is on the practical application of the legal principles, including an awareness of issues that arise in negotiations, contracts and litigation involving entertainment companies and creative talent.
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Environmental Law
This course focuses on federal and state environmental laws. Topics include pollution control, waste management, and cleanup of contaminated land and water. The course explores legislative policy and regulatory decisions as well as enforcement issues. We will give attention to questions of environmental justice and to the strategic use of legal tools in working to ensure safe and healthy surroundings for diverse groups of people.
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Estate Planning
This basic upper-level course weaves together three strands that make up the discipline of estate planning. Strand 1 is an introduction to key elements of relevant law: property; creditor/debtor; wills, estates, and trusts; estate and gift tax; trust income taxation; and a touch of public benefits. Strand 2 introduces the tools and key components of an estate plan, such as Wills, Trusts, asset titling, and death beneficiary designations. Strand 3 weaves these together with and applies them to real-world frequently encountered situations using classroom hypotheticals to teach sound practice management, ethical considerations, blended family issues, and a mindset that plans for the knowable unknowns (e.g., not all potential beneficiaries may in the future be healthy, financially secure, still living, or even born yet). No prerequisites.
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Evidence
This course examines how courtroom lawyers use the evidence rules to present their cases---notably, rules regarding relevance, hearsay, impeachment, character, and experts. The approach to the study of evidence will be primarily through the "problem" method---that is, applying the provisions of the Federal Rules of Evidence to concrete courtroom situations. Theoretical issues will be explored as a way to deepen the student's appreciation of how the evidence rules can and ought to be used in litigation.
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Family Law
This is a basic course in family law and family policy. The first half of the course explores state regulation of intimate relationships, asking what purposes marriage serves, and looking at the law of incest, polygamy and same sex marriage. The second half of the course examines practical problems in family law: cohabitants’ rights; common law marriage; and the many issues relating to divorce, with a particular focus on money and children.
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Family Law Litigation Practicum
This course will give students an intensive experience lawyering for domestic violence survivors in family court.  During a weekly seminar (3 credits), students simulate representing parties to a divorce from initial client interview to trial.  Students will be exposed to substantive issues including abuse prevention, custody & visitation, support, and property division, and will enhance lawyering skills like interviewing, counseling, and oral advocacy.  For an additional 3 credits, up to 6 students may participate in 10-12 hours/wk of supervised practice with a family law practitioner (private and non-profit employers) during the academic quarter, which will be coordinated with a required co-op placement the following quarter.  Experience working with abuse survivors and enrollment in Family Law are recommended.
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Federal Courts and the Federal System
The subject of this course is the distribution of power between the states and the federal government, and between the federal courts and other branches of the federal government as manifested in jurisdictional rules of the federal courts. The topics covered include the nature of the federal judicial function, the review of state court decisions by the United States Supreme Court, and the jurisdiction of federal district courts, with special emphasis on actions claiming constitutional protection against state official actions.
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First Amendment
This course examines several rights protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution. The focus is on the principles and processes developed by the judiciary to protect various forms of speech, expression and association. The course does NOT deal with the free exercise of religion or the establishment clause. The course also focuses on integrating doctrine with the core values of the First Amendment as well as emphasizing the need for students to develop their own preferred approach to protecting free expression. The course does not, except tangentially, deal with other parts of the Bill of Rights.
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Global AIDS Policy Seminar
The global HIV/AIDS pandemic, the preeminent public health and human rights challenge of our time, is structured by biological, economic, social, and cultural forces ranging from the arcane structures of the international intellectual property regime to the cultural norms that prefigure sexual intimacy. This seminar will explore selected policy options for reversing and responding to the tide of infection. Pharmaceutical research, development, and access, neo-liberal economic and trade policies, gender relations and prevention policies, global health initiatives and primary health systems, health care policy and health worker migration – these and many other topics will be the subject of classroom discussion and student research papers.
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Health Care Fraud and Abuse
This course provides an overview of the law relating to health care fraud. It will provide an overview of the health care fraud and abuse laws, emphasizing the role of whistleblowers, qui tam actions, criminal investigative techniques, trial issues inherent in white collar criminal prosecutions, innovative resolutions of corporate fraud including compliance programs, and sentencing. Topics will include an overview of the health care payment system, the frauds visited on that system, and the interplay of criminal prosecutions with the FDA regulation. This course is highly recommended for students in the JD/MPH program, LLM students specializing in health policy and law, and students interested in criminal law, but is open to others as well. Health Law is recommended but not required.
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Health Law
This course examines the legal regulation of the provision of health care services. Much of the focus is on the relationship between law and health care policy. Topics include access to health insurance and health care, health care financing, malpractice liability, the organization and responsibility of health care institutions, especially hospitals, the regulation of the quality of care and the formulation of health policy. This course is highly recommended for all students enrolled in the JD/MPH dual degree program, but is open to others as well.
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Human Behavior, Legal Doctrine and Regulatory Design
This course will compare accounts of human behavior, including the Utilitarian/Law and Economics view of man as a rational calculator of his self-interest, with classical and contemporary alternatives to that description, including Behavioral Economics. We will evaluate the reasons for doubting or crediting these competing accounts, and will then consider their implications for determining appropriate legal doctrines and regulatory approaches. For example, we may consider whether the views of human behavior which shape consumer protection case law and the Supreme Court’s commercial speech doctrine are justified, and whether – and in what circumstances—regulations are appropriate which seek to help people by prescribing, proscribing, or “nudging” their behavior. Students are expected to participate in class and write a research paper which may satisfy the writing requirement.
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Human Rights and the Global Economy
This introductory survey course in international human rights highlights the growing influence of the international economic, social, and cultural rights framework as well as the implications of globalization for all international human rights. We examine the history and theoretical origins of human rights such as rights to food, housing, health, education, cultural expression, political participation, and prohibitions on discrimination and violence. We also review the legal framework under major international and regional human rights treaties and leading interpretations of them by international, regional, and domestic courts and other actors. Finally, we grapple with the tensions among collective rights, cultural imperatives, and traditional human rights. Students will be asked to explore these issues in specific context through individual and group projects. There is no prerequisite for this course, although having taken a course in International Law, or its equivalent, or taking such a course at the same time, is recommended.
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Human Rights Seminar: Race, Gender, Culture
This research and writing seminar in international human rights law provides an opportunity for in-depth investigation of a human rights-related problem (or model for solving such problems). The seminar explores key themes and complex challenges in the law of international human rights, such as the following: “intersectionality” (the impact of multiple forms of discrimination); racial/ethnic discrimination in international perspective; gender stereotyping and violence against women; rights to religious and cultural expression in tension with individual or collective equality norms; and transnational migration (including transnational migrants, human trafficking, and “economic refugees”). The seminar requires regular participation in class discussions, preparation of a written bibliography, research outline, first draft, in-class presentation, and a final paper or legal memorandum 25-30 pages in length.
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Immigration Law
This course is designed to give the student an overview of U.S. immigration law through an examination of relevant statutes, regulations, and case law. It focuses on both the substantive and procedural aspects of immigration law and provides a historical analysis of the changes in our immigration laws and policies. Topics covered include non-immigrant and immigrant classifications, the preference system for immigrant visas, grounds of inadmissibility and deportability, relief from removal, asylum, citizenship, administrative and judicial review, and the immigration consequences of crimes.
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Independent Study
Any upper level student in good standing may engage in one or more independent study projects, totaling not more than three credits during an academic quarter and six credits during the two upper level years. A student wishing to conduct an independent study must secure the approval of a faculty member who agrees to supervise the project. Many students use independent studies to continue to examine a topic begun during co-op, or to extend the syllabus of a course. Students may also design projects which are not based in either course work or co-op, but in all cases a faculty sponsor must agree to the project.
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Inside Counsel
The legal departments of corporations represent a significant practice opportunity for lawyers interested in corporate and regulatory law. These corporate departments operate on a different model than law firms and regulatory agencies and offer careers that combine legal disciplines with business management skills. This course will examine the roles of corporate counsel inside U.S.-based corporations and not-for-profits, specifically: the value proposition of corporate counsel, common responsibilities, unique ethical issues, the implications of the Sarbanes-Oxley and Dodd-Frank acts, corporate governance, risk management and litigation. Students will be graded on their responses to mid-term and final essay questions and the demonstration of their comprehension of the subject matter in the classroom. Prior study of Corporate Law is preferred but not required.
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Innovation Workshop
As the importance of intellectual property (IP) grows, managers and lawyers need to understand IP opportunities and risks and to collaborate effectively during new product development (NPD) in order to establish valid IP assets and effective IP strategies. This course for MBA and JD students will address the legal and business challenges of integrating NPD processes with IP asset development and IP risk management, with an emphasis on establishing and exploiting IP assets for competitive advantage and clearing or minimizing the risk of IP infringement. Students will collaborate on proposals for managing the development of a next generation product to assure timely launch and strategic IP positioning, including developing plans for identifying potential IP assets and defining the team, resources, critical stages and decision points.
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Intellectual Property
In our modern day ‘information economy,’ the law of intellectual property has taken on enormous importance to both creators and users of intellectual creations. This course introduces students to the classic principles of copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret law and explores the ways in which those principles are shifting and adapting in response to new technology.
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Intellectual Property (IP) Law Clinic
The clinic requires students to devote twenty hours per week to providing IP-related legal services to students, ventures and other participants in the university’s entrepreneurship and innovation eco-system under the supervision of clinical faculty and staff. The services will include opportunities to present and address issues related to IP opportunities and risks spanning ideation, development and launch for individuals and ventures in the university community and to collaborate with faculty and other campus organizations on IP learning modules, policies, presentations and workshops for this community. The Intellectual Property survey course, LAW 7369, is a prerequisite and preference will be given to students with other relevant academic learning or relevant co-op or practical experience.
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Intellectual Property Transactions Practice
This course provides students with lawyering training for business transactions, with a focus on the purpose, terms and conditions of transactions related to the creation, ownership, license, sale, use and exploitation of intellectual property assets. The course includes analyzing cases, problems and agreements related to transactions affecting private and public interests. A series of initial exercises will focus on the purpose, effect and drafting of various types of transactions and clauses. The class will then focus on several cases or problems leading to transactions between private business and/or NGOs or other public interest parties, for which students will be expected to analyze the parties' interests, propose transactional resolutions and draft or revise transaction documents. As a final exercise intended to satisfy the upper level writing requirement, each student will prepare on behalf of one party to the transaction a version of a transaction document and the draft and final versions of an advisory memorandum.
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International and Foreign Legal Research
This course is designed to teach students how to research international and foreign legal materials. The course uses a combination of lectures, hands-on research exercises, and homework assignments. Students will have opportunities (1) to increase the quality of research by attaining substantive knowledge on international legal topics and the legal system in which their issue arises; (2) to attain practical skills to brainstorm search terms, formulate issues, and evaluate legal research resources by reiterative process; and (3) to increase flexibility and confidence in researching international and foreign law topics. Some topics covered include: U.S. and Non-U.S. treaties, international custom, jurisprudence, and the documents of the United Nations, the European Union, and NGOs. The class will also explore research in topical areas such as human rights, Immigration and refugee laws, and foreign laws.
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International Business Regulation
This course introduces students to the architecture of the complex regulatory systems that govern the operation of the global economy. In the first part we will explore some of the diverse legal regimes that shape and are shaped by the behavior of transnational economic actors, with attention to the perspectives of transnational regulators, corporate managers and activists. In the second part we will look at the basic trade theory, concepts and doctrines that underlay the GATT/WTO regime. Finally, we will work to synthesize what we have learned by analyzing and presenting complex business/social/policy case studies using perspectives gained in the course. This course is designed to give students an overview of some of the principle regulatory structures that structure economic behavior in the global economy as well as the diverse impact this complex global system has on regulation and policymaking at the local, national and transnational levels.
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International Business Transactions
This course deals with transnational commercial law. It addresses the legal framework for international sales transactions, including the commercial terms of the sales agreement, shipping contracts, insurance, financing arrangements, and customs documentation. It also examines foreign direct investment transactions, international franchise and distribution agreements, and contracts for the transfer of technology.  Bribery of foreign officials and liability under US and international rules are also included. Dispute resolution will be considered briefly with emphasis on choice of law and forum, arbitration, and enforcement of arbitral awards and foreign judgments.
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International Criminal Law
An overview of substantive and procedural international criminal law and its enforcement mechanisms, this course will cover principles of state liability and individual culpability, international crimes, international criminal procedure, and punishment. It will focus on the sources and principles of international criminal law, how international human rights, humanitarian and criminal law are binding on U.S. and other domestic courts, and the history and operations of international human rights, humanitarian and criminal tribunals. It will also address state liability for failure to investigate, prosecute and punish gross human rights violations and other international crimes, conspiracy and corporate responsibility, and individual culpability and defenses for state actors and private individuals. It will consider international crimes such as War crimes, crimes against peace and humanity, and breaches of the Geneva Convention. It will consider principles of punishment, including the death penalty.
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International Health Law: Governance, Development and Human Rights
This course will address three aspects of international health law: global health governance, health in the context of development, and health and human rights. Through the use of country and topical case studies the course will explore how laws structure and interact in the context of global health.  The paper for this course can count for the writing requirement. Prior or concurrent course work in International Law or equivalent will provide a helpful foundation for this class, but is not required.
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International Intellectual Property 
Technological inventions, creative works, brand equity, know-how and other accumulated experience and expertise are important assets in the current global economy. Although the intellectual property (IP) laws intended to protect and regulate these assets are national, the assets are not readily confined to the country of origin and exploitation is often multi-national. National boundaries are not marked in cyberspace. Advising clients in this environment requires understanding of a variety of IP laws, including patent, copyright and trademark laws, and related treaties and the complex application of those laws and treaties to national, multinational and global activities and business transactions.

This course will begin with a series of classes introducing the relevant legal and trade principles, economic and cultural influences and sources of law. These classes will consider important principles of international law, IP treaties and institutions, including the principles of territoriality, national treatment, choice of law and choice of forum, the treatment of cultural property, the scope of TRIPs and the roles of WIPO and WTO. The balance of the course will be devoted to a series of problems and current controversies that will allow students to examine IP laws from a comparative perspective, to consider the impact of economic interests on development of IP laws and treaties, to analyze the influence of IP laws and treaties on foreign and multi-national activities, and to discuss practical approaches for establishing, protecting and using IP assets and engaging in global activities and business transactions. Prior Intellectual Property course work is a prerequisite.
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International Law
This course introduces students to fundamental concepts and unresolved problems in international law. We discuss historical and contemporary theoretical debates about the roles and utility of international law. Students are introduced to the sources of international law and to methods of international dispute resolution in domestic and international fora. This course explores the part that international law has played (or failed to play) in the prevention or conduct of war, the promotion of human rights and international economic development.
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International Trade
This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the legal framework for U.S. and international regulation of international trade. The course will include a brief introduction to the economics of trade and trade restriction measures. It will then focus on the World Trade Organization agreements regulating international trade in goods, services and intellectual property; it will provide an overview of the North American Free Trade Agreement; and it will examine U.S. trade laws particularly relief from "unfairly" traded imports, boycotts and trade sanctions.
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JD/MPH Applied Learning Experience
The student’s work completed for this course fulfills the capstone requirement for the Master of Public Health (MPH) portion of the Dual JD/MPH Program with Tufts University. The requirement is known as the Applied Learning Experience and it earns 3 Northeastern University Law school credits. Students fulfilling this required course spend a minimum of 160 hours in a public health agency completing a project related to public health and law. It is both an academic and practice experience where students use their legal and public health knowledge and skills to undertake a discrete project in a public health agency. A final paper and presentation is presented. Prereq. Permission of department.
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Juvenile Courts: Delinquency, Abuse and Neglect
This course covers the broad topic of children in custody for delinquency, abuse or neglect and for status offenses. Through an examination of fundamental case law, statutory law and theory of juvenile law, participants will be exposed to both substantive and procedural principles of the juvenile court system. The course examines how children come into court jurisdiction and the educational and mental health services they require while in foster care or in detention. The course looks at foster care, termination of parental rights and adoption as well as the juvenile death penalty issue. Court attendance is a requirement.
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Labor Arbitration Workshop
In this workshop, students will explore the important role of alternative dispute resolution in the workplace. Using court and arbitration decisions as well as supplementary materials, students will discuss the relationship between arbitration and the judicial system, a union’s duty of fair representation, issues of arbitrability, evidence and procedure, as well as a variety of substantive contractual issues normally addressed in arbitration, such as seniority, fringe benefits, wages and hours, subcontracting and union security. In particular, the course will focus on “just cause” discharge and discipline cases. Although there are no prerequisites or co-requisites, Labor Law I is recommended.
During the course of the quarter, students will draft an arbitration brief based on a transcript of a hearing and participate in an arbitration simulation using witnesses and documentary evidence.
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Labor Law I
A general introduction to the law of labor relations through an examination of the National Labor Relations Act and leading cases, in conjunction with historical, social and economic materials. Topics include organization, union recognition, unfair labor practices and collective bargaining.
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Labor Law II
An advanced labor law course focusing on the law of the collective bargaining agreement. The course compares collective bargaining rights to other workplace rights systems, such as individual statutory entitlement and public employee constitutional rights.
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Land Use
A survey of legal doctrines, techniques and institutions relating to regulation of the use of real property. Topics covered include constitutional questions of takings by public agencies, the scope of the police power as it affects land use and the basic techniques of zoning and subdivision control. Students study, among other issues, recent cases on exclusion of low income housing, current techniques to encourage housing development (inclusionary or "linkage" regulations) and First Amendment questions arising from land use controls.
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Law and Economic Development
This course will examine the prevailing economic theories of and strategies for economic development since World War II and the legal and institutional frameworks devised to implement these strategies. Questions we will explore will include: What kinds of legal and institutional arrangements best facilitate economic growth? How does law structure and shape markets? What is “development” and how can it best be measured? Can legal instruments be used effectively to address underdevelopment in a structural way? While the focus will be on development in the so-called “developing world,” we will also explore some strategies for addressing development in a local community context. We will conclude the course by applying what we have learned to address several development case studies posing particular problems in particular regions and contexts.
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Law and Literature: Life as a Lawyer
This course offers students the opportunity to think and write about how they choose to create their lives as lawyers, and to ponder the benefits and burdens of “thinking like a lawyer.” At the heart of the course is the reading of two novels, a play, and a biography, as well as several short stories. Most of the readings deal very little with lawyers, but they do invite us to think about how lawyers think, write, talk, and act compared to others, and how one might hope to live a fulfilling life as a lawyer. This is in large measure a writing course, requiring eight short papers. The writing requirement is described in more detail in the syllabus. Some sample papers from students who took the similar Legal Imagination course are on reserve in the library. This course differs from that course in three primary ways: 1) we will not be reading from James White’s book, The Legal Imagination; 2) this course deals less with linguistics and the role of language than White emphasized; and 3) we will confront more directly our aspirations and fears about the practice of law and our roles as lawyers.
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Law of Financial Institutions
This course will survey the complex regulatory regime governing the operations of commercial banking organizations in the United States. The primary focus will be on federal regulation of banks and bank holding companies. Nevertheless there will also, of necessity, be coverage of federal regulation of other types of depository institutions and holding companies — such as credit unions, savings associations, and savings and loan holding companies — as well as of state regulation of depository institutions and their holding companies. Current issues relating to bank mergers, diversification of banking organizations into other forms of financial and commercial activities (including securities and insurance), regulatory responses to specific problems (such as capital adequacy, deposit insurance, limitations on lending authority, anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism initiatives) will be considered.
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Law Practice Management Seminar: Access to Justice 
The seminar challenges conventional law practice management by exploring means of methods of filling the market gap in the provision of legal services to middle class clients.  Using the vehicle of a business plan, students will investigate and document ways using improved marketing, staffing patterns, technological innovations and a variety of other tools to provide legal services to underserved portions of the market in a sustainable and economically viable fashion.  Students will develop skills to bridge-the-gap between their theoretical education and the practical application and will be able to implement aspects of their business plan in any role as a practitioner.
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Law, Technology and Science
This course will examine the relationships between the domains of law, technology and science, focusing primarily on their reciprocal impacts, co-constructions, and politico-theoretical conceptualizations as modes of governance. The course will draw primarily on nanotechnoscience as a technical case study, and its readings will flow from a disciplinarily broad set of discourses, including: legal theory, judicial opinions, political philosophy, scientific literatures and speculative fiction.
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Lawyering with Spanish-Speaking Clients
This course is for students who already have excellent language skills in Spanish, and who wish to develop their abilities to communicate and represent clients effectively when doing advocacy work and practicing law in Spanish-speaking communities. The course will focus on interacting with Spanish-speaking clients in a variety of legal settings. It will emphasize development of skills in understanding client interests and goals, explaining legal concepts, pursuing strategies, and taking steps in legal contexts that involve communication in Spanish.
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Legal Analysis (Bar Review Prep Course)
In preparation for graduation and the bar exam, Legal Analysis offers third year students the opportunity to review all first year doctrinal subjects plus upper level Evidence, as well as offering material not covered in the courses they have previously taken. Although this course is voluntary and not a substitute for a commercial bar review course, it will be a useful tool in the third year students' preparation for their bar exam.
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Legal Interviewing and Counseling
Students in this course will study the principles of interviewing and counseling, learning how to interview clients to identify their legal problems and to gather information on which solutions to those problems can be based. Students will also practice interviewing witnesses and students will be taught how to counsel clients - a process by which, having determined what the client’s legal problems are, the lawyer helps clients make decisions by identifying potential strategies and solutions and their likely positive and negative consequences. Students will practice specific interviewing and counseling techniques and have the opportunity to receive feedback from classmates and the instructor.
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Legislation
This course deals with the distinctive nature of legislation as a source of law. Topics for study include the legislative process, the role of legislatures and the theory and practice of statutory interpretation. Materials and lectures will be based in part on case studies taken from recent Supreme Court and Congressional actions, particularly in the area of civil rights. One session will be a simulated legislative session. Several short legislative drafting assignments will be required.
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Modern Real Estate Development
This course will explore the basic elements of commercial real estate transactions, with a focus on the acquisition and financing of real estate development. We will discuss the economic considerations (including basic tax benefits) and risk elements of real estate development, as well as some of the emerging trends in real estate development and their theoretical implications. We will give limited consideration to residential real estate transactions. An affordable housing transaction will serve as the basis for the course discussions. Course materials will include typical transactional documents. During the term, one or more in-class drafting exercises will be included to help focus the discussion of the issues.
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Moot Court and Legal Competition
This individualized instruction program allows students to participate in a variety of professional competitions: moot court, mock trial, mediation, client counseling and writing competitions. Under the supervision of a faculty member, participants in these competitions devote substantial time and effort to researching, writing, and preparing for oral arguments or advocacy. In recognition of the effort required to participate in these competitions, participants are awarded up to three (3) credits for the experience, provided they satisfactorily (i) complete the required written submission, (ii) participate in a number of rounds of practice argument, and (iii) attend and participate in the competition.
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Natural Resources Law
This course addresses legal requirements and institutions dealing with animal and plant species, biological resources, habitats, and ecosystems. Major themes include biological diversity, endangered and threatened species, public and private rights in migratory resources, public trust doctrine, the allocation of power among federal, state, and local governments, and the roles of administrative agencies in ecosystem management. The course provides opportunities to explore specific topics of interest such as environmental ethics, wetlands protection, fisheries law, Native American hunting rights and fishing rights, and management of national parks, forests, and grazing lands.
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Negotiation
Negotiation is a course in which students study theories of negotiation and apply those theories in simulated disputes and transactions which are then debriefed in class. The major simulations in Professor Baker’s course include a criminal plea bargain, a disability-based wrongful termination case, and a current international access to medicines dispute. The course focuses on: (1) negotiation planning, (2) case preparation and evaluation, (3) client counseling and informed client consent, (4) analysis of the bargaining range and principled concession patterns, (5) competitive, cooperative and problem-solving strategies, (6) information bargaining, (7) ethics and (8) critiques of negotiation patterns and institutions. Students are required to turn in preparation materials and to keep weekly journals, reviewed by the instructor, addressing their experiences in, and thoughts about, negotiations. Students are encouraged to internalize habits of analysis, prediction, preparation, and flexibility and to become more self-evaluative for their future negotiating experiences.
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Non-Profit Organizations
This course is about federal regulation of nonprofit organizations. Why does the government exempt certain organizations from tax? What are the rules that non-profit organizations must follow in order to retain their tax-exempt status? What activities by non-profit organizations are prohibited by federal law? These and other questions about non-profit organizations will be discussed. The course will focus on relevant Federal tax law, but there is no prerequisite for the course. Although the course is about the Internal Revenue Code, the concepts of income taxation (what is income? when is it income? etc.) are irrelevant because nonprofit organizations are exempt from tax.
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Patent Law
This course will provide an in-depth review of patent law and practice. The course will cover the administrative process for obtaining patents, including the requirements for patentability. The course will also cover enforcement of patent rights and the defense of patent infringement suits. The course will be presented in a simple, non-technical manner so that students of all disciplines can learn and understand the concepts.
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Payment Systems - Commercial Law
When money changes hands by check, credit card or electric transfer, and when notes or drafts change hands prior to their payment, the movement of funds or paper is itself a commercial transaction. This course studies the law of payments, primarily Articles 3, 4 and 4A of the Uniform Commercial Code. Topics include the negotiability of commercial paper, the consequences of negotiability for merchants, consumers and banks; how checks clear through banks; and who bears the loss in the event of fraud, theft or mistake.
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Poverty Law and Practice Clinic
The twenty hours a week spent in the clinic provides an opportunity for students to provide direct representation to clients confronting legal challenges as they try to balance family and work responsibilities. Students have complete responsibility for a range of clients under the supervision of a faculty member. Students interview, research, plan, investigate, counsel, negotiate, and advocate for their clients. The clinic encourages students to maintain a client-centered focus and looks to extend the experience beyond the problem of the individual to the benefit for the community. The clinic also provides an opportunity to work in collaboration with a community organization in order to experience collaborative efforts for systemic change for low income clients.
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Pretrial Civil Practice and Advocacy
This course provides the foundation to manage the pretrial phase of a civil action. Each class will consist of a lecture concerning an aspect of pretrial practice, followed by student conducted pretrial advocacy. Using model civil cases, the students will engage in most types of pretrial practice, including an initial client interview and basic legal analysis to evaluate and assert potential legal claims and defenses, witness selection and preparation, deposition and written discovery practice, dispositive motions, pretrial memoranda and settlement positions. Evidence is a prerequisite.
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Prisoners' Rights Clinic
This clinical course is offered during both the fall and winter quarters. It provides upper-level students with an opportunity to develop and refine valuable advocacy skills under the close supervision of two experienced practitioners. Typically, each student gets to handle, from beginning to end, either an adversarial hearing (final parole revocation), or a non-adversarial parole release hearing for an inmate serving a life sentence. Through this experience, students learn how to properly conduct client/witness interviews and thorough factual investigations, to examine and cross-examine witnesses effectively and to make persuasive opening and closing statements. Students also learn how to write winning administrative appeals. The skills students learn in this course are easily transferable to any civil or criminal practice after law school. The course also presents a survey of the constitutional law relating to the sentencing process and the rights of prisoners while incarcerated and while on parole.
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 Private Litigation for Social Justice (was Strategic Litigation)
How can lawyers working in the "private" arena influence public policy? This course looks at tort-based litigation that impacts tobacco control, climate change, and other policy arenas. It considers the financial consequences of "mass torts", class actions and punitive damages on plaintiffs' attorneys as well as on defendants, and examines doctrinal, ethical and practical issues raised by the effort to use civil remedies to achieve social chang
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Problems in Public Health Law
This course will explore the rationales for using law to protect and preserve the public’s health, the legal tools that may be used to achieve that end, and the conflicts and problems that may result from legal interventions. Topics discussed will include the use of law to reduce the spread of HIV and other infectious diseases, control of tobacco and other hazardous products, bioterrorism, and the threats TO CIVIL LIBERTIES AND MINORITY GROUPS engendered by all such legal efforts. This course is highly recommended for all students enrolled in the J.D./M.P.H. dual degree program, but is open to other students as well.
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Professional Responsibility
This course focuses on the legal, ethical and professional dilemmas encountered by lawyers. The course emphasis is on dealing with these dilemmas in the everyday practice of law while understanding the underlying issues and gaining a perspective within which to evaluate them.
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Professional Responsibility Seminar
This small section of Professional Responsibility is taught as a seminar-style course. The course incorporates basic analytical and legal reasoning techniques, as well as offers opportunities for students to improve their legal writing through analysis and critique. Writing is done in the context of Professional Responsibility doctrine with a focus on legal, ethical and professional dilemmas encountered by lawyers. This course fulfills the 3 credit Professional Responsibility course requirement while, at the same time, refines students' basic analytical and writing skills.
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Public Health Legal Clinic
This clinic supports the work of the Public Health Advocacy Institute, a Northeastern-based think tank and its Center for Public Health Litigation. Students will gain experience in public interest law and the use of litigation to improve the public health. The clinic will focus on predatory marketing of harmful products and services like tobacco, obesigenic foods and beverage, video poker and slot machines. Students will conduct factual and legal research to support ongoing PHAI research projects and possible cases for the Center. Students will develop legal research, writing, and strategic and advocacy skills. Each student will work on a major project, meet regularly with the instructor, give an oral presentation, and write a substantial paper discussing his/her research.
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Quantitative Methods
Quantitative Methods is an interdisciplinary skills-building course intended to enhance students’ ability to critique, analyze, and generate empirical information. The course explores a variety of contexts in which legal and policy professionals may be called upon to evaluate and interpret data. Possible topics may include calculating the present value of cash flows in settlements (divorce, personal injury); preparing and analyzing financial statements (corporate); critiquing empirical methods and sources of bias in scientific literature (mass torts, medical malpractice); evaluating geographical information (environmental management, zoning); and formulating social science and polling research (public policy and politics). Taking an experiential approach, students are expected to apply concepts and methodologies introduced in class to straightforward problem sets, independent research assignments, and interactive discussions of current events. No prior experience is necessary; this course is designed for wonks and novices alike.
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Refugee and Asylum Law
This course provides an overview of U.S. and international law governing the treatment of refugees. The primary focus is on U.S. law as it has evolved since passage of the Refugee Act of 1980, including relevant statutes, regulations, administrative decisions, and federal case law. The course also includes an examination of relevant international law and UNHCR guidelines, and a comparative look at doctrine and practices in other countries. In addition, we will discuss issues of due process within the U.S. asylum adjudication system; questions relating to cross-cultural communication and credibility determinations; new and emerging theories of asylum eligibility; and recent policy developments that impact asylum seekers in the United States. Prior or concurrent course work in International Law and/or Immigration Law will provide a useful foundation for this course but is not required.
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Reproductive and Sexual Health and Rights
This course will examine how sexual and reproductive health laws impede or increase access to sexual and reproductive health care and shape how we understand what constitutes sexual and reproductive health. Attention will be paid to understanding legal doctrine, public health research, and critically assessing issues arising from sexual and reproductive health law. The course will draw on various tools of analysis including critical race theory, critical legal theory, human rights, and a range of public health methods. Topics covered will include, amongst others, sexual and reproductive health law as it pertains to abortion, sexuality, pregnancy, marriage, health care in prisons, immigrants, HIV/AIDS, and sex education. The course covers both domestic and international issues pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and rights. 
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Rights of Non-citizens
This seminar explores the rights of noncitizens in the United States under both domestic and international law. The primary focus of this course is on the constitutional and human rights of noncitizens in a wide range of contexts (including workplace rights, public benefits, and public education) rather than on statutory immigration law. Students will be asked to choose and research a relevant topic, incorporating both domestic and international law into their analysis. Students will present their research to other members of the seminar for discussion and feedback from other students and the instructor before submitting the final paper at the end of the quarter. Final papers can be used to satisfy the law school's "rigorous writing" requirement. Readings will include case law, statutes, policy reports, and academic articles from a variety of disciplines. 
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Secured Transactions - Commercial Law
This course has as its principal focus the way that most credit in America is extended. Most creditors require collateral to secure their loans. Hence, secured transactions are pervasive in our society, even if most people do not know the legal term for many of their transactions. Such transactions range from buying automobiles or large household goods on credit to large mega-loans made by banks to large corporations. The primary law studied is Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code and certain sections of the federal Bankruptcy Code. The course also seeks to introduce students to commercial transactions generally and to further their facility with issues of statutory construction.
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Securities Regulation
Federal regulation of securities transactions originated in the New Deal investor protection legislation of the early 1930s and must now adapt to the changes and challenges of the 21st century. This course surveys major issues in the registration of initial public offerings (“IPOs”) under the Securities Act of 1933 and relevant provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, civil liability provisions, and the major exemptions from registration. Students will engage in detailed statutory analysis, as well as analysis of judicial and administrative decisions. The material covered in the course also raises important public policy issues such as “market democracy” and the role of regulation, disclosure policy with regard to corporate accountability and social responsibility, and the implications of internet disclosure.
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Sexuality, Gender and the Law
This course uses case law and theory to address doctrinal problems and justice concerns associated with gender and sexuality. The syllabus is organized around notions such as privacy, identity and consent, all of which are conceptual pillars upon which arguments in the domain of sexuality and gender typically rely. Doctrinal topics include same-sex marriage, sodomy, sexual harassment, discrimination, among others, but the course is not a doctrinal survey; it is a critical inquiry into key concepts that cut across doctrinal areas. Students should expect to write a paper and share some of what they have learned with the class.
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Social Welfare Law
This course examines American public assistance as a legal institution. After reviewing the historical, sociological and juridical roots of the welfare system, students examine the laws governing major assistance programs, especially eligibility requirements, rules governing grant determination, work and family rules, and procedural rights. Primary emphasis is on statutory and regulatory construction. The course explores methods by which lawyers can deal with the system: advocacy in the administrative process, litigation, legislative reform and representation of recipient organizations.
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Sports Law
This course explores the legal, economic and social aspects of national and international professional and amateur sports. The course will focus on judicial, administrative, legislative and private decisions that have created a cohesive body of principles for the resolution of disputes involving athletes, clubs, leagues, spectators, and fans. These decisions address issues of antitrust, labor, tort, agency, and constitutional law. We will pay particular attention to the governance of sports, player reservation systems and player contracts, collective bargaining and salary arbitration, franchise free agency, violence in sports, NCAA rules and regulations, gender and handicapped discrimination, and sports agents. Students will draft a research paper on a topic approved by the instructor.
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State and Local Government

This course offers an introduction to the workings of state and local governments, and to the roles of law and of lawyers in shaping and controlling their operation. Topics to be covered include: the sources and scope of state and of local lawmaking authority, intergovernmental relationships, modes of citizen participation in and control over the governing process, and state and municipal fiscal structure and operations. In exploring these topics, the course will focus both on the practical roles played by attorneys (employed inside or outside of government) in the governmental processes and on the place of decentralized governmental units within the vision of a democratic polity.
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State and Local Taxation
This course surveys the variety of regimes deployed by various states to fund state and municipal government, with primary attention to state income taxation of individuals and businesses, property taxation and sales taxes. Among the topics to be covered are federal and state constitutional constraints on state and local tax structures, alternative methods of state business taxation, and issues relating to the taxation of interstate activity. The course will approach these topics from the viewpoints both of state tax policy-making and of taxpayer planning and representation.
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Theory for the Sake of Clients
This two-credit seminar will explore the nature of legal approaches to conflict resolution and institutional design from the perspective of how legal training equips lawyers to serve client needs. Students will be introduced to core aspects of legal analysis such as rules vs. standards; law-on-the-books versus law-in-action; text versus subtext; majority rule vs. minority rights; literal vs. purposive interpretation and more. Topics will be reviewed through discussion of how non-lawyers often view problems differently and thus how lawyers must work hard to explain their work to clients. Ward Farnsworth's book, The Legal Analyst, will serve as a class resource. Evaluation will be based on short reaction papers and a final exam.
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Trademark and Branding Law
As preparation for advising clients on brands and brand-related activities, this course provides an introduction to trademark law and other laws (such as unfair competition, trade dress, design patent and advertising) and the business practices associated with branding products and services. The focus is on the practical application of legal principles with respect to selection, acquisition, promotion, use and protection of brand indicia (marks, logos, slogans, designs, labels and packaging) and related lawyering competencies, including conducting due diligence, applying relevant law, working collaboratively, giving useful advice and communicating effectively.
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Transactional Drafting Seminar
The seminar will address concepts applicable to a wide range of transactional legal documents, with a particular emphasis on drafting in the context of corporate transactions, including employment issues, shareholders' rights, and mergers and acquisitions. No knowledge of corporate law will be assumed, and there are no prerequisites for this seminar. Regular class assignments will include drafting "from scratch" and drafting using initial forms, editing your own and others' work, and oral presentation of your work and your edits to the work of others. Students will not be expected to conduct independent legal research in connection with any assignment.
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Trusts and Estates
This basic course covers all aspects of inheritance, including intestacy, wills, common modern will substitutes, trusts, and future interests, with attention to rights of spouses and children, charitable interests, fiduciary duty, and other issues. The focus is practical, and students are required to write numerous short exercises - including analysis, planning advice, and formal drafting - to address realistic problems.
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Whistleblower
This course provides an introduction to the legal issues related to whistleblowing, a dynamic new area in employment, corporate compliance, and anti-fraud law. It focuses on tort-like remedies and monetary rewards available to whistleblowers under the Dodd-Frank, Sarbanes-Oxley, Foreign Corrupt Practices and False Claims Acts, along with protections under tax law, the First Amendment, and common law. There will be a final exam and a short paper [approximately 2 pages in length].
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Youth Advocacy Practicum
This course will expose students to a range of civil legal issues affecting youth.  A weekly seminar (3 credits) will cover substantive issues including social security benefits for children, education rights, trafficking and violence against youth.  Attorneys who specialize in these legal areas will guest lecture about their practice.  Students will also learn a range of lawyering skills with a focus on advocacy for child and adolescent clients and their families. For an additional 3 credits, up to 6 students may participate in 10-12 hours/wk of supervised legal practice in one of the substantive issue areas covered in the course, which will be coordinated with a required co-op placement the following quarter.
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