When Christopher Columbus discovered North America in 1492, he landed on the Caribbean island he named Hispañola. The island was split into two parts, half named Santo Domingo. French buccaneers from Tortuga Island, whose main occupations were tanning hides and pirating Spanish ships, gradually migrated into Santo Domingo territory. In 1697, the Spanish, who had depleted the area of the minerals they sought, relinquished ownership of Santo Domingo to France in the Treaty of Ryswick.
The French turned the island into an agricultural mecca. The main crops of the island were sugar and coffee; Saint-Domingue, as the island was now called, produced sixty percent of the world’s coffee and forty percent of the world’s sugar. Such production was maintained through utilization of the slave trade. Saint-Domingue was home to approximately 700,000 slaves by 1791. The slaves were integral to the rapid development of southern ports such as Bordeaux.
In 1791, the loyalties of Saint-Domingue were divided by the French Revolution in the mother country. The island was in chaos. The slaves organized themselves under Toussaint Louverture and rebelled against their white masters; on January 1, 1804, a new nation was born under the leadership of Dessalines, who succeeded Louverture after his decapitation. Dessalines named the island “Haiti,” after the name the indigenous people had for the island, “Ayti,” or “mountainous.”
17 April 1925: Haiti Indemnity and First Bank Loan
By 1825, France’s newly imposed policy of isolating Haiti was bearing fruit; Haitian merchants were unable to trade their goods with any of the surrounding colonial powers or even the United States of America, which valued its ties to Europe more than it valued the upstart slave state of Haiti. President Boyer, leader of Haiti at the time, understood that the only way out of the dilemma was to establish diplomatic ties with France, but by then France was already making plans of its own for its former colony.
Charles X, the contemporary king of France, felt that to sustain the monarchy he required resources that only Haiti could offer. Thus, perceiving that Haiti’s need for international recognition was a valuable source of leverage, he sent an “envoy” of 14 warships armed with 528 cannons in order to guarantee Boyer’s approval of “the most generous treaty [of our time].” This treaty entailed that France would give Haiti recognition and open commerce, but only if Haiti paid an “indemnity” for all of the French property lost in the Haitian revolution and if Haiti gave France preferential commercial treatment. It was agreed that Haiti would pay 150 million gold francs total (equivalent of one year’s total revenue for Haiti), with a payment plan of 30 million annually. In order to pay the debt, Boyer levied a “Debt Nationale” tax on the Haitian people to pay off the French. At the same time, he increased military spending out of fear of a French invasion of Haiti.
Worse, in order to fund payments, Haiti took out its first loan of 30 million francs from French banks in 1925, thus creating what is called “the double national debt,” one debt owed to the French government, the other to the French banks.
1838: Reduction of Haitian Indemnity
In 1838, Louis-Philippe ascended the throne of France. He decreed then that Haiti’s debt to France be reduced from the 90 million it had left to pay to 60 million. At this point however, the complex financial ties France had established with Haiti through bank loans meant that France practically controlled the purse strings of Haiti until the 1915 invasion of the United States. As if this was not enough, the first bank loan Haiti had taken out on France had an interest rate of 6% a year, and by 1850 it had become a monster debt of 81 million francs.
1883: Indemnity Officially Paid Off
The Haitians, largely with loans from French banks, succeeded in paying off its final dues to the French government. However, they are still left with a formidable debt to the French banks.
15 June 1915: French Intervention on the Cap Haitien
In 1915, the French and Americans were concerned by the large presence of Germany in the Haiti. Germany had just attempted to force open the Haitian market to German interests in a colonial manner and U.S. President Woodrow Wilson tried to come to a more favorable agreement with Germany. However, the French landed marines on the Cap Haitien in a direct breach of the Monroe Doctrine. The Haitian President Sam ordered the execution of 160 French prisoners in response, which gave the French an excuse to literally hack him to pieces.
1952: Bank Loans Paid Off
2002: Europe Funds Opposition Groups in Haiti
Parties led by former military oligarchs and the Haitian elite are funded indirectly by UN members.
2004: France Kidnaps Aristide…?
In 2004 France stepped up a media campaign against Aristide after Aristide demanded 21 billion dollars worth of reparations from France in order to pay back the “indemnity” Haiti had paid until 1883. France allegedly kidnapped Aristide and sent him to the Central African Republics, where France holds much political influence. To keep order, France partook in the MINUSTAH police action and was complicit in the massacre of Cite Soleil in 2006, where dozens of civilians were killed at gunpoint.
Present: France Steps up Humanitarian Aid to Haiti
Sarkozy became the first French president to ever visit Haiti and his former minister of foreign affairs Bernard Kouchner agreed with former president Clinton and medical anthropologist Paul Farmer that more aid needed to be sent to Haiti, particularly in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake. Though the US is the leader in aid to Haiti, France believes it is doing its part as well. For example, France’s embassy in Haiti reports that thanks to French help the Haitian tribunals will be functional again by January 2012. It also claims to be helping combat corruption in the government.
France has canceled 52.5 million euros worth of debt the Haitian government owes France and it has reportedly given 24.5 million euros worth of aid in materials, 100 million euros in donations to reconstruction projects, and 60 million euros in contribution to a European Union aid fund to Haiti. Dozens of French corporations are present in the country including the oil company Total and the liquor company Grand Marnier. France also has a cultural exchange center in Haiti called l’Institut Francais that acts as a school for 2,000 Haitian children. The Alliances Francais and the Lycee Alexandre Dumas occupy the same role as cultural institutions.
1804-1862: The U.S. Refuses to Recognize Haitian Independence
After Haiti declared its independence, it began to seek to build relations with foreign nations. Because Haiti produced the cash crops of sugar and coffee, it relied on trade to bring food crops into the country. By declaring independence from France, Haiti broke old trade ties and was left to build new foreign relations. The U.S., rather than offering Haiti diplomatic recognition, openly opposed Haiti as a nation. Fully twenty years after Haiti was independent, a South Carolina senator stated, “’Our policy with regard to Hayti [sic] is plain. We never can acknowledge her independence…The peace and safety of a large portion of our nation forbids us even to discuss it’” (Chomsky). The U.S. held that recognizing a country that had earned independence through a slave revolt would be detrimental to their national wellbeing as slavery continued in the U.S. until 1864.
1915-1934: The U.S. Military Occupation of Haiti
In 1915, the United States entered Haiti to stabilize the Haitian government, to secure U.S. control to ensure a U.S. presence in the Caribbean, and to integrate Haiti into the international trade market. During its nineteen years in Haiti, however, many events transpired that tarnished the reputation of the U.S. marines and led to their eventual withdrawal. In Haitian scholar Marie-Josee Mont-Reynaud’s paper on the subject, he describes the occupation as one that “rigged elections, passed treaties by force, declared martial law, held military tribunals, censored press, dissolved the Haitian Senate, changed the constitution by an unconstitutional plebiscite, and violently suppressed opposition.” Corvee labor was also introduced. The U.S. argued that the work was creating an infrastructure necessary for Haitian growth, as roads, railroads, aqueducts, and other needed foundational structures were constructed; Haitians, however, saw the forced unpaid labor as slavery. In 1934, the U.S. troops withdrew after the Forbes Commission, created by Hoover to evaluate the Haitian situation, deemed that it was in the nation’s best interest to bring the troops home.
1981: U.S. Slaughter Haitian Pigs
In 1978, pigs in Haiti tested positive for Asian Swine Flu. The U.S. began discussions “necessary to protect the pork industry of both Haiti and the rest of the region” (Gaertner). The University of Minnesota estimated that if the ASF were to reach the United States, it would wreak between $150 million and $5 billion; this lead the U.S. to spend $15 million and thirteen months to systematically slaughter every pig in Haiti. Pigs are a form of currency and livelihood in Haiti, and the U.S.’s slaughter in 1981 devastated the economy. In an attempt to compensate for the loss of Haitian pigs, the U.S. introduced pigs from Arkansas onto the tropical island. The pigs could not stand the conditions, and the repopulation was considered a failure. -click here for additional info
1980-1990: U.S. Attitude Toward Aristide
Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a priest in a small town in Haiti, began to gain popular support from the Haitian peasantry in 1980. He preached liberation theology: that Christians must work for social and economic justice for all people. This revolutionary idea frightened the United States. Ronald Reagan, President of the U.S., struggled with how to handle the revolutionary as Aristide was gaining power. A member of Reagan’s brain trust declared Aristide’s liberation theology “less Christian than Communist.”
1990: Aristide’s Rise to Power and the U.S. Intervention
In the 1990 Haitian elections, Aristide took 67% of the popular vote in a field of twelve candidates. He began implementing his radical ideas, frightening the U.S. The Bush administration funded the opposition and the Haitian military, which had been created during the United States occupation and had never known a foreign enemy. Papers released from U.S. government files revealed that the CIA and other U.S. organizations had helped to create and fund a paramilitary group called FRAPH, or Front Revolutionnaire Arme pour le Progres d’Haiti, that continually undermined Aristide’s authority. In September of 1991, a military coup ousted Aristide and led to the slaughter of thousands of civilians and to the flight of a hundred thousand to the sea. An African specialist on the National Security Council under President Clinton asserted that “most people around the world believe that Aristide’s departure was at best facilitated, at worst, coerced, by the U.S. and France.”
1994: Aristide’s Return to Power and the Effects on U.S. Relations
In 1994, Aristide was returned to power by the United States in a United Nations-sanctioned action. The U.S. had been facing pressure for their alleged involvement in Aristide’s coup, as Aristide had been a democratically elected president with the support of the people. Paul Farmer insists that Aristide’s return was “little more than a U.S. show.” Months after this occurrence, Republicans took power in Congress and began to fight all aid to Haiti. They hoped to strangle Aristide’s resource and incite rebellions against him. These blockades of much needed finances to Haiti continued through 2010.
2004: Aristide Removed from Power
Aristide spoke out against the indemnity forced upon Haiti after it won its independence from France. He demanded that it be repaid and calculated that with inflation, the indemnity was now worth $21 billion in U.S. dollars. Such a proposal angered both France and the United States, and shortly after Aristide was no longer in power. He claims that he was kidnapped by the United States, while the U.S. insists that he stepped out of power. The United States Security Council passed a resolution after Aristide’s removal “taking note of the resignation of Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President of Haiti and the swearing-in of President Boniface Alexandre as the acting President of Haiti in accordance with the Constitution of Haiti.”
2004-Present: MINUSTAH Occupies Haiti
In 2004, the United Nations established a presence in Haiti, of which the United States is a part. The initiative is known as MINUSTAH, or MIssion des Stabilisation en Haiti. Their goal is “to restore a secure and stable environment, to promote the political process, and to strengthen Haiti’s government institutions and rule-of-law structures, as well as to promote and to protect human rights” (“United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti”). Though the initial troops were to be withdraw by 2009, MINUSTAH has continued to grow amidst many controversies and accusations. -click here for more info
German (Prussian) Relations
After a German named Leuders is imprisoned in Haiti, a German diplomat demands an indemnity of $1,000 for every day the prisoner remained incarcerated. After 23 days, Haiti refused and Germany broke off all relations with Haiti. The US negotiated the release of Leuders, who was subsequently deported from Haiti, but on the December 6th German cruisers arrived at Port au Prince to demand that Leuders be allowed to return to Haiti and that he be paid $30,000 or reparations.
September 1902: Germans Attack Haitian Insurgents
The German cruiser Panther sinks the Haitian insurgent gunboat Crete-a-Pierrot. The incident is received favorably by the US as this protected its interests in the area.
1910: Haitian Germans Control 80% of Haiti’s International Commerce
Though German Haitians only numbered about 200, they wielded a disproportionate amount of economic power. For example, they owned and operated utilities in Port-au-Prince and Cap Haitien but also controlled the Port-au-Prince main wharf. These Germans competed with the French merchants over the customs receipts that represented Haiti’s flagrant debts to European creditors as well as control over Haiti’s vulnerable National Bank.
1912: Germany Proposes to Gain Control of Coal Mining, Port Privileges, and Haitian Customs in Exchange for Loan
Kaiser Wilhelm was interested in the port of Saint Nicholas Mole as a base for the German Naval Fleet, which understandably upset U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. Wilhelm attempted to negotiate the cession of the port to German interests on the basis of a German loan to Haiti of $2,000,000. This would apparently have been a lucrative deal for Germany since it included coalmines, port privileges, and valuable Haitian custom receipts, which would no doubt have given Germany a lot of sway over Haitian purse-strings.
1914: US attempts to dissuade Germany from further involvement in Haiti; Germany challenges Monroe doctrine
1917: Haiti Expels Germans from Country; Germany Severs Diplomatic Ties with Haiti
When the US declared war on Germany in 1917, the Haitian government protested against the heavy German submarine activity in the area. This gave Haitians the excuse to officially declare war on July 14th, 1918. German property was conscripted by the Haitian government and placed in liquidation.
1918: Germans Return to Island after the War, Resume their Old Business, and Re-Acquire Possessions
Haitians seeking work outside of the country landed in Brazil and other countries, such as French Guiana, where they compete with Brazilians for work in mining, logging, and other such industries. Such competition has created ill feelings between the countries, and Brazil reportedly tightened its immigration policy.
2004: Brazil Declares Involvement in MINUSTAH Amid Controversy
A week after President Aristide was removed from power, President Lula da Silva of Brazil pledged 1,100 troops to aid in the MINUSTAH efforts. The move was highly controversial, as Brazil’s own financial state is unstable and many of its own people require aid. President Lula da Silva was highly criticized for involving his country. According to Anna Ioakimedes, a Council on Hemispheric Affairs Research Associate, “Lula da Silva’s reasons for his country’s presence are more self-centered than just maintaining regional peace or helping the Haitians, and more accurately stem from Brazil’s desire to advance its position on the world stage, a project for which U.S. goodwill is essential.”
2005-2009: Brazilian Financial Aid and Technical Assistance Goes Largely to Haiti
Dutty Boukman, which means Dirty Book Man, was born a slave in Jamaica but was sold to a Frenchman in Haiti. He became a Haitian houngan, or priest. Weeks before the revolution, he held a vodou ceremony in which the leaders of the rebellion swore to free their people and take vengeance upon the French. Though little is known about the events of this meeting on August 21, 1791, it is given credit for jumpstarting the revolution and has grown to become a legend for the Haitian people.
2004: Haiti Suspends Jamaican Diplomat Ties
The interim Prime Minister of Haiti, Gerard Latortue, put diplomatic relations with Jamaica on hold and temporarily removed Haiti’s ambassador to Jamaica after Aristide was taken there for a time after being forcibly removed from power. Aristide, who had the popular support of the Haitian people and who was their first democratically elected leader, left supporters in Haiti uproarious after his removal. Latortue also said he would be “reconsidering Hati’s position with the 15-member Caribbean Community,” according to Prengaman in “The Washington Post.”
2010: Jamaica Sent 50 Jamaica Defense Force Personel With Supplies After the Earthquake
Links for Extra Information
Organizations and Videos
Dubois, Laurent. “Haitian History.” Interview. Big Think. Duke University, 09 July 2010. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://bigthink.com/laurentdubois>.
-Laurent Dubois is a Professor of French Studies and History and Haitian History and Culture at Duke University. On this site, Dubois discusses the past, present, and future of Haiti in various interviews. He discusses how different countries, namely France and the United States, have affected Haitian development, and gives his opinions on what should be done to aid Haiti’s rebuilding.
“L’Ambassadeur.” Ambassade De France En Haïti. Ministeres Des Affaires Etrangeres Et Europeenes. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ambafrance-ht.org/-L-Ambassadeur->.
-The French ambassador to Haiti can be accessed through this link. His office can be accessed directly from this link. By going directly to the source, the information will be the most current, though obviously with a French bias.
Massacres a Cite Soleil. Dir. Kevin Pina. YouTube – Broadcast Yourself. Haiti Information Project, 19 July 2008. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngK_2MEjJpM>.
-This video depicts the second massacre to occur in Cite Soleil. Though Cite Soleil is known to be a gang hub, each intervention by MINUSTAH forces has led to drastic loss of civilian life. The makers of this video are Haitian nationalists, so it has a strong anti-MINUSTAH position.
“United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.” United Nations, 01 Nov. 2011. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minustah/>.
-The United Nations official site gives information on the goals and statistics of MINUSTAH. It records the number of troops deployed, the countries involved, mission statements, fatalities of forces, past achievements, and other helpful information. As the UN site, it is pro-MINUSTAH.
U.S. Role in Departure of Haitian President Aristide. Meeting with Former Haitian President. C-SPAN, 11 Mar. 2004. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/180925-1>.
-This article and its accompanying video show Aristide’s interview with various panelists after his second removal from power. The United State’s role in the coup is discussed. Hosted by the Congressional Black Caucus, this article and video largely support Aristide and condemn the United States.
Farmer, Paul. Haiti After the Earthquake. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011. available at: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Dstripbooks&field-keywords=haiti+after+the+earthquake&x=0&y=0
-In Haiti After the Earthquake, Paul Farmer, a doctor and medical anthropologist with extensive experience working in Haiti, discusses the plight of post-earthquake Haiti. He delves into the issues that made the earthquake so devastating, and gives wisdom as to how Haiti should be “built back better” now. Farmer has experienced U.S. involvement in Haiti firsthand, and believes that the U.S. owes Haiti its support.
Gros, Jean-Germain. State Failure, Underdevelopment, and Foreign Intervention in Haiti. New York: Routledge, 2012. available at: http://www.amazon.com/Underdevelopment-Intervention-Routledge-American-Politics/dp/0415890322/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1323237610&sr=1-1
-In State Failure, Underdevelopment, and Foreign Intervention in Haiti, Jean-Germain Gros studies how humanitarian intervention through military operations affects failed states, particularly as it relates to Haiti. He blames the Haitian inability to form a functioning political structure for poverty and underdevelopment. As for his position, Gros both judges and praises those nations that have intervened in Haiti and Haiti itself. He holds both responsible for their successes and their failures.
Matthewson, Tim. A Proslavery Foreign Policy: Haitian-American Relations During the Early Republic. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. available at: http://www.amazon.com/Proslavery-Foreign-Policy-Haitian-American-Relations/dp/0275980022/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1323238163&sr=1-1
-Tim Matthewson’s book, A Proslavery Foreign Policy: Haitian-American Relations During the Early Republic focuses on the long interim where the United States refused to recognize Haitian independence. He discusses the growth and acceptance of proslavery sentiment in the White House; he then views the current Haitian problems, blaming racial tension in part for the suffering of the Haitian people.
Schmidt, Hans. The United States Occupation of Haiti: 1915-1934. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers UP, 1971. available at: http://www.amazon.com/United-States-Occupation-Haiti-1915-1934/dp/081352203X/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1323238434&sr=1-1
-The United States Occupation of Haiti: 1915-1934 by Hans Schmidt is a scalding judgment of the United States nineteen year military intervention in Haiti. He condemns the violent, racist, and undemocratic actions he believes were committed during the period. The novel is written as a historical account and is well dated and cited; it is largely supported by some critics as being a realistic view into a terrible time in U.S. history but is denounced by others for only show one side of the occupation.
Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. Silencing the Past. Boston: Beacon, 2007. available at: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Dstripbooks&field-keywords=silencing+the+past&x=0&y=0
-Michel-Rolph Trouillot discusses the international impact of the Haitian revolution in his work Silencing the Past. Evaluating events philosophically and factually, he attempts to create a picture of what caused the Haitian revolution, why it was successful, why other nations did not see the revolution brewing, and how other nations dealt with the slave revolt. This appraisal, alongside discussions on the Holocaust and the Alamo, combine to create a comprehensive study on how power makes and records history.
Online Texts or Informational Sites
Buschschluter, Vanessa. “The Long History of Troubled Ties between Haiti and the United States.” BBC News. 16 Jan. 2010. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8460185.stm>.
-BBC News has a page titled “The Long History of Troubled Ties between Haiti and the United States” that works backwards through Haitian history, focusing on the interactions between Haiti and the U.S. The page was created after President Obama announced that he would send up to ten thousand troops to help rescue efforts after the earthquake; though it supports this effort, the page puts his gesture into perspective by analyzing the past times U.S. troops have been introduced into Haiti.
“Haiti News.” World. The New York Times, 26 Oct. 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/haiti/index.html>.
- On the “Haiti News” section of the The New York Times page, there are both news articles and historical accounts of various interactions between the U.S. and Haiti. As these pages are supposed to be informative, they are largely unbiased, including quotes and interviews from people presenting a variety of views. All news articles pertaining to Haiti that have appeared in The New York Times can be found on this page in reverse chronological order.
“Haiti Yields to Germany.” The New York Times 8 Dec. 1897. Nytimes.com. 07 Dec. 1941. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F50812FB3B5D11738DDDA10894DA415B8785F0D3>.
-“Haiti Yields to Germany,” an article published in The New York Times, reports on the issue of the German breach of the Monroe Doctrine. It also discusses the Leuders case and German demands for reparations.
Mackey, Robert. “France Asked to Return Money ‘Extorted’ from Haiti.” New York Times. 16 Aug. 2010. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/08/16/france-asked-to-return-money-extorted-from-haiti/>.
-In The New York Times article “France Asked to Return Money ‘Extorted’ from Haiti,” Robert Mackey writes about a public letter written to French President Nicolas Sarkozy from an international group of scholars demanding that the Haitian indemnity be repaid. This article in particular is interesting because it includes several accounts of this demand being made, including Aristide’s and the activist group C.R.I.M.E., or Committee for the Reimbursement of the Indemnity Money Extorted from Haiti.”
“Republic of Haiti.” Diplomacy in Action. U.S. Department of State, 19 Oct. 2011. Web. 07 Dec. 2011. <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1982.htm>.
-The U.S. Department of State’s official webpage for Haiti, “Republic of Haiti,” offers information about the Republic of Haiti. There are links to pages that focus on Haiti statistics, people, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations, U.S. relations, and travel. It also discusses the history of Haiti and the United State’s involvement in it. The history is fairly comprehensive, beginning with the revolution and ending post-earthquake. The accounts favor the U.S. and praises the United States for “tak[ing] a leading role in organizing international involvement with Haiti.”
“The Boukman Rebellion.” The Louverture Project. 13 June 2011. Web. 05 Dec. 2011. <http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=The_Boukman_Rebellion>.
Damu, Jean. “Haiti Makes Its Case for Reparations.” Chickenbones. 06 May 2010. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.nathanielturner.com/haitimakescaseforreparations.htm>.
Ebert, Allan. “Porkbarreling PIgs in Haiti.” Haitian Hell. Multinational Monitor, Dec. 1985. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1985/12/ebert-porkbarrel.html>.
Farmer, Paul. Haiti After the Earthquake. New York: PublicAffairs, 2011. Print.
Gaertner, Phillip. “Haiti: Pig Irradication and Repopulation.” Webster University, Fall 1990. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/misctopic/pigs/gaertner.htm>.
“Haiti Foreign Relations.” Photius Coutsoukis. Information Technology Associates, 10 Nov. 2004. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <http://www.photius.com/countries/haiti/government/haiti_government_foreign_relations.html>.
“Haiti’s Aristide Accuses France.” BBC News. 05 Mar. 2004. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3534781.stm>.
“History of Haiti.” Traveling Haiti. 2011. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.travelinghaiti.com/history_of_haiti/french_settlement_sovereignty.asp>.
Ioakimedes, Anna. “Brazil’s Peacekeeping Mission in Haiti: Doing God’s or Washington’s Work?” HaitiAction.net. The Council on Hemispheric Affairs, 6 Dec. 2004. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.haitiaction.net/News/COHA/12_6_4.html>.
“Milestones: 1914-1920.” Office of the Historian. U.S. Department of State. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://history.state.gov/milestones/1914-1920/Haiti>.
Mont-Reynaud, Marie-Josee. “The Failure of the American Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934.” Mar. 2002. Web. 04 Dec. 2011. <http://haitiforever.com/windowsonhaiti/am-occup.htm>.
Pike, John. “German Interests.” Military. GlobalSecurity.org, 02 Aug. 2011. Web. 03 Dec. 2011. <http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/haiti/history-11.htm>.
Prengaman, Peter. “Haiti Suspends Relations With Jamaica Over Visit.” Latin American Studies. The Washington Post, 16 Mar. 2004. Web. 06 Dec. 2011. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/haiti/jamaica-relations.htm>.
Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2001. Print.
“United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.” United Nations, 01 Nov. 2011. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minustah/>.
Photo Tributes (In Order)