Fellowships in Washington, DC

AAAS:

The Science & Technology Policy Fellowships are opportunities for professional development and public service. They are operated by AAAS as part of its mandate to "advance science and serve society." The aim is to foster scientifically informed, evidence-based policy and practice by engaging scientists and engineers from a broad range of disciplines, backgrounds and career stages to directly contribute their knowledge and analytical skills to the federal government; to learn first-hand about policymaking and implementation at the federal level; and to build leadership for a strong S&T enterprise that benefits all people.
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American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (AEI):

AEI is a private, nonpartisan, not-for-profit institution dedicated to research and education on issues of government, politics, economics, and social welfare.

Post-doctoral fellowships are nine to twelve month programs for recent graduates and doctoral students engaged in dissertation research interested in U.S. domestic public policy research. While in Washington, fellows are immersed in a rich public policy environment. The program exposes them to a breadth of scholarship within AEI, as well as at other D.C. institutions engaged in policy debate.
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The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG):

The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) and the National Human Genome Research Institute are co-sponsoring the genetics and public policy fellowship to give genetics professionals an opportunity to contribute the policy-making process. This unique fellowship provides three separate types of experiences: time spent in the NIH as a part of the Executive branch; a staff position on Capitol Hill serving elected officials and the Legislative branch; and then experience working with ASHG in the non-profit science advocacy sector. This variety of assignments provides experience for the fellow from multiple critical viewpoints and challenging perspectives of the scientific policy-making process. 
 
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Brookings:

The Brookings Institution is a nonprofit public policy organization based in Washington, DC. Our mission is to conduct high-quality, independent research and, based on that research, to provide innovative, practical recommendations.

Brookings offers a number of fellowship options.  Fellowship recipients are able to conduct research and develop ideas in an innovative, high-quality working environment with access to many resources.  Some fellowships include a stipend and/or other benefits.
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The Department of Education (DoE):

The DoE offers the Jacob K. Javits Fellowships Program. This program provides fellowships to students of superior academic ability—selected on the basis of demonstrated achievement, financial need, and exceptional promise—to undertake study at the doctoral and Master of Fine Arts level in selected fields of arts, humanities, and social sciences.
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Department of Energy (DOE):

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) has established the DOE Office of Science Graduate Fellowship ( DOE SCGF) program to support outstanding students to pursue graduate training in basic research in areas of physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, engineering, computational sciences, and environmental sciences relevant to the Office of Science and to encourage the development of the next generation scientific and technical talent in the U.S.
For more informationis visit the DOE SCGF website.

FDA:

The FDA offers a two-year Fellowship Program, the Commissioner’s Fellowship, which provides an opportunity for health professionals and scientists to receive training and experience at the FDA. Fellows will train at FDA's White Oak campus in Silver Spring, Maryland or at other FDA facilities. Salaries are extremely competitive, and travel funds are available to attend scientific meetings.
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The Fellowships Office:

The Fellowships Office (FO) of the National Academies administers predoctoral, postdoctoral, and senior fellowship awards on behalf of government and private/foundation sponsors; these fellowship awards play an important role in the career development of doctoral and postdoctoral researchers and scholars for the academic, federal, industrial and international workforce.
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The Library of Congress:

The Library of Congress offers many fellowship opportunities throughout the Library.
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The National Science Foundation (NSF):

The National Science Foundation's Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP) helps ensure the vitality of the human resource base of science and engineering in the United States and reinforces its diversity.  The program recognizes and supports outstanding graduate students in NSF-supported science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines who are pursuing research-based master's and doctoral degrees at accredited US institutions.  The NSF welcomes applications from all qualified students and strongly encourages under-represented populations, including women, under-represented racial and ethnic minorities, and persons with disabilities, to apply for this fellowship.
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Presidential Management Fellows Program (PMF)

Created in 1977 by Executive Order, the PMF Program matches outstanding graduate students with Federal opportunities, providing graduates a great leadership training ground. The Program attracts and selects the best advanced degree candidates possible, but is really designed with a more narrow focus - developing a cadre of potential government leaders. It provides some sustenance during the first years of employment and encourages development of leadership capabilities. The PMF Program inculcates a lasting bond as well as a spirit of public service, ultimately encouraging and leading to a career in the government.
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The Smithsonian:

Fellowships at the Smithsonian Institution provide students and scholars with opportunities to pursue independent research projects in association with members of the Smithsonian professional research staff.

The “Fellowship” page offers a link to information about Fellowships at the Smithsonian, and it also provides information about other Fellowship programs.

The White House:

Founded in 1964, the White House Fellows program is one of America's most prestigious programs for leadership and public service. White House Fellowships offer exceptional young men and women first-hand experience working at the highest levels of the federal government.

Selected individuals typically spend a year working as a full-time, paid Fellow to senior White House Staff, Cabinet Secretaries and other top-ranking government officials. Fellows also participate in an education program consisting of roundtable discussions with renowned leaders from the private and public sectors, and trips to study U.S. policy in action both domestically and internationally. Fellowships are awarded on a strictly non-partisan basis.
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In addition to the White House Fellows program, the White House provides internship opportunities. The White House Internship Program provides a unique opportunity to gain valuable professional experience and build leadership skills. This hands-on program is designed to mentor and cultivate today’s young leaders, strengthen their understanding of the Executive Office and prepare them for future public service opportunities. Apply now for Fall 2011! 

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars:

The Center awards approximately 20-25 residential fellowships annually to individuals with outstanding project proposals in a broad range of the social sciences and humanities on national and/or international issues. Topics and scholarship should relate to key public policy challenges or provide the historical and/or cultural framework to illuminate policy issues of contemporary importance.
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