About the Forms
Long – FFQ adapted for use with Southern (Mississippi Delta) population
Short – Condensed version of the Delta NIRI with less detail (used by the Jackson Heart Study).
The focus of the Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI), funded by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, is to identify effective nutrition interventions that may assist the population in reducing the health disparities, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer risk that are extremely high in the region, relative to other parts of the US. We worked with the Delta NIRI to create an FFQ using data from 24-hour dietary recalls administered to African American and white adults in the lower Mississippi Delta region in the year 2000.
The methodology used for the development of this questionnaire was similar to the one used to create the Hispanic FFQ described above. Foods that contributed at least 0.5% to nutrients examined were included in the FFQ food list. Some of the regional foods that were included in the food list for the FFQ included foods such as grits, okra, black-eyed peas, ham hocks, chicken fried steak, hushpuppies, “sweet” tea, and stews like jambalaya. Important recipe modification options included the use of bacon or animal fats in vegetable preparation. The FOODS 2000 data revealed that there was tremendous variation in reported portion sizes, with some extremely large portions of specific foods, particularly snack foods and sweet drinks, in this generally low income population. Therefore, expanded portion sizes were included on the FFQ.
The draft form was field-tested at several community sites in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD), and in Jackson Mississippi. Using a variant of cognitive interviewing methodology, more than 100 questionnaires were interviewer-administered to individuals in the region. Reactions, difficulties, or questions by respondents were noted systematically and discussed in depth at investigator meetings and the questionnaire was revised accordingly.
This questionnaire, along with a shortened version adapted for use in the Jackson Heart Study, was validated against the average of four 24 hour recalls (including both weekdays and weekend days), showing correlations of 0.41 for men and 0.33 for women, which is more in line with what is usually seen with non-Hispanic white populations in other large studies. Further, mean energy intakes from the FFQ were higher than from the recalls: 2018 vs 1985 for men, and 1688 vs 1568 for women, suggesting full capture in intake.