Steel-Concrete Composite Beam-Column Database

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This article or section is in the process of an expansion or major restructuring
This article or section is in the process of an expansion or major restructuring.
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This page describes a database of experimental tests on circular and rectangular concrete-filled steel tube and steel-reinforced concrete beam, columns, and beam-columns. The database is primarily intended to be used in the validation of analytical models and design procedures.

Additional administrative information about this database, including working documentation and current task lists, can be found on the discussion page.

Contents

Section Types

The database has three section type categories.

  • CCFT - circular concrete-filled steel tubes
  • RCFT - rectangular concrete-filled steel tubes
  • SRC - steel-reinforced concrete

Other section types (such as hollow tubes, sandwich tubes, and members with stiffeners) are not included.

Member Types

The database also has three members type categories:

  • C+PBC - Columns and proportionality loaded beam-columns
  • Beams - Members subjected primarily to bending moment with out axial load
  • Other - Members subjected to axial load and bending moment but not falling in the other categories

Other types of loading (such as primarily shear or torsion) and specimens loaded such that the member strength is not obtained (such as push-out tests, connection tests, load not applied to the full composite cross section, strength not achieved due to limitations in the testing equipment) are not included.

Fields

General Information

Field Notes
Author Author of the original reference
Year Publication year of the original reference
Specimen Name of the specimen given in the original reference
Tags Extra information about the tests. Tags include:
  • CyclicLoad - Indicates that the load was applied cyclically
  • Greased
  • LightweightConcrete - Indicates that the concrete was light weight
  • LongTermLoad
  • PreloadedSteel
  • WeldFailure
Notes Miscellaneous additional information

Section Data

Field Notes
Fy, Fy_units Measured yield stress of the steel shape and associated pressure units
Fu, Fu_units Measured ultimate stress of the steel shape and associated pressure units
fc, fc_type, fc_units Measured concrete compressive strength, test type, and associated pressure units. Test types include:
  • Cylinder
  • Cube
Section Data Specific to CCFT Members
D, D_units Measured outside diameter of the steel tube and associated length units
t, t_units Measured thickness of the steel tube and associated length units
Section Data Specific to RCFT Members
B, B_units Measured width of the steel tube and associated length units
H, H_units Measured height of the steel tube and associated length units
t, t_units Measured thickness of the steel tube and associated length units
SteelTubeType Type of steel tube used for the specimen. Tube types include:
  • ColdFormed
  • WeldedBox
Section Data Specific to SRC Members
B, B_units Measured overall width of the composite cross section and associated length units
H, H_units Measured overall height of the composite cross section and associated length units
shapeName Name of the embedded steel shape
d, d_units Measured depth of the embedded steel shape and associated length units
tw, tw_units Measured thickness of the web of the embedded steel shape and associated length units
bf, bf_units Measured width of the flange of the embedded steel shape and associated length units
tf, tf_units Measured thickness of the flange of the embedded steel shape and associated length units
config_longitudinal Configuration of the longitudinal reinforcement. Configurations include:
  • 2x-2y
db, db_units Measured diameter of the longitudinal reinforcing bars and associated length units
Fylr, Fylr_units Measured yield stress of the longitudinal reinforcing steel and associated pressure units
config_lateral Configuration of the lateral reinforcement. Configurations include:
  • none
  • ties
dbTies, dbTies_units Measured diameter of the lateral reinforcing bars and associated length units
s, s_units Measured center-to-center spacing of the lateral reinforcing bars and associated length units
Fytr, Fytr_units Measured yield stress of the lateral reinforcing steel and associated pressure units
cover, cover_units Measured concrete cover measued from the center of the longitudinal reinforcement to the outside face of the composite cross section and associated length units

Member Data

Field Notes
LoadDeformation "yes" or "no" depending on whether or not load deformation results are available
BendingAxis "strong" or "weak" depending on the axis of bending of the specimen
  • Not included for CCFT, which are symmetric
  • Typically listed at "strong" for Square CFT
Member Data Specific to Columns and Proportionally-Loaded Beam-Columns (C+PBC)
L, L_units Measured length of the member and associated length units
Pexp, Pexp_units Maximum load from the experiment
dAtPexp, dAtPexp_units Lateral deformation at the mid-height of the column when the maximum load (Pexp) is obtained
et, et_units Load eccentricity at the top of the column and associated length units
eb, eb_units Load eccentricity at the bottom of the column and associated length units. Left blank if et = eb.

References and Notes

Prior to the 1990s

Author and year Number of specimens References Notes
Klöppel and Goder 1957 46 CCFT C+PBC
  • Kloppel, V. K. and Goder, W. (1957). “Traglastversuche mit ausbetonierten Stahlrohren und Aufstellung einer Bemessungsformel.” Der Stahlbau, 26(1), 1-10. (in German)
  • Knowles, R. B. and Park, R. (1970). “Axial Load Design for Concrete Filled Steel Tubes.” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(10), 2125–2153.
  • Original report is in German, the listed data are taken from Knowles and Park 1970
  • Knowles and Park applied a factor of 0.8 to the concrete strength to convert for the cube strength given in the original report. Thus, fc_type is listed as cylinder
Salani and Sims 1964 17 CCFT C+PBC
  • Salani, H. R. and Sims, J. R. (1964). “Behavior of Mortar Filled Steel Tubes in Compression,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 61(10), 1271-1283.
Stevens 1965 57 SRC C+PBC
  • Stevens, R. F. (1965). “Encased Stanchions.” The Structural Engineer, 43(2), 59–66.
  • Aho, M. F., and Leon, R. T. (1997). A Database for Encased and Concrete-Filled Columns. Report #97-01, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • Some data taken from Aho and Leon 1997
Chapman and Neogi 1966 18 Total
  • 16 CCFT C+PBC
  • 2 RCFT C+PBC
  • Chapman, J. C. and Neogi, P. K. (1966). “Research on Concrete Filled Tubular Columns.” Engineering Structures Laboratories Report, Imperial College, London.
  • Knowles, R. B. and Park, R. (1970). “Axial Load Design for Concrete Filled Steel Tubes.” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(10), 2125–2153.
  • Original report is unavailable, the listed data are taken from Knowles and Park 1970
  • Knowles and Park applied a factor of 0.8 to the concrete strength to convert for the cube strength given in the original report. Thus, fc_type is listed as cylinder
Furlong 1967 52 Total
  • 8 CCFT C+PBC
  • 5 RCFT C+PBC
  • 22 CCFT Other
  • 17 RCFT Other
  • Furlong, R. W. (1967). “Strength of Steel-Encased Concrete Beam Columns,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 93(5), 113-124.
  • Knowles, R. B. and Park, R. (1970). “Axial Load Design for Concrete Filled Steel Tubes.” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(10), 2125–2153.
  • SSRC, Task Group 20. (1979). “A Specification for the Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Columns.” Engineering Journal, AISC, 16(4), 101–115.
  • Specimen names were not given in the original report, the listed names were created for this database.
  • The length of the specimens was described as "short" in the original report.
  • The value of length for the column specimens was taken from Knowles and Park (1970)
  • The value of length for the beam-column specimens was taken from Task Group 20, SSRC (1979)
Gardner and Jacobson 1967 24 CCFT C+PBC
  • Gardner, N. J. and Jacobson, E. R. (1967). “Structural Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tubes,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 64(11), 404-413.
Gardner 1968 19 CCFT C+PBC
  • Gardner, N. J. (1968). “Use of Spiral Welded Steel Tubes in Pipe Columns,” Journal of the American Concrete Institute, 65(11), 937-942.
Knowles and Park 1969 27 Total
  • 17 CCFT C+PBC
  • 10 RCFT C+PBC
  • Knowles, R. B. and Park, R. (1969). “Strength of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 95(12), 2565-2587.
  • Knowles, R. B. and Park, R. (1970). “Axial Load Design for Concrete Filled Steel Tubes,” Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 96(10), 2125–2153.
  • Specimen names were not given in the original report, the listed names were created for this database.
  • The concrete strength for each specimen was not listed in the original report. For the column specimens, the concrete strength was taken from Knowles and Park (1970). For the beam-column specimens, an average value of 6000 psi was used.
Neogi et al. 1969 18 CCFT C+PBC
  • Neogi, P. K., Sen, H. K., and Chapman, J. C. (1969). “Concrete-Filled Tubular Steel Columns Under Eccentric Loading.” The Structural Engineer, 47(5), 187–195.
Guiaux and Janss 1970 24 CCFT C+PBC
  • Guiaux, P., and Janss, J. (1970). Comportement au Flambement de Colonnes Constituees de Tubes en Acier Remplis de Beton. C.R.I.F., Brussels, Belgium.
Anslijn and Janss 1974 39 SRC C+PBC
  • Anslijn, R., and Janss, J. (1974). Le Calcul des Charges Ultimes des Colonnes Métalliques Enrobées de Béton. Rapport MT 89, C.R.I.F., Brussels, Belgium.
Roderick and Loke 1975 18 SRC C+PBC
  • Roderick, J. W., and Loke, Y. O. (1975). “Pin-Ended Composite Columns Bent About the Minor Axis.” Civil Engineering Transactions, 17(2), 51–58.
  • Aho, M. F., and Leon, R. T. (1997). A Database for Encased and Concrete-Filled Columns. Report #97-01, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia.
  • The steel shapes have a slope on the inner flange surfaces
  • Data for strong axis specimens taken from Aho and Leon 1997
Bridge 1976 4 RCFT C+PBC
  • Bridge, R. Q. (1976). Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns. Research Report No. R283, School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Tomii and Sakino 1979 36 Total
  • 8 RCFT C+PBC
  • 28 RCFT Other
  • Tomii, M. and Sakino, K. (1979). “Experimental Studies on the Ultimate Moment of Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Beam-Columns,” Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan, 275, 55-63.
Cai and Jiao 1984 46 CCFT C+PBC
  • Cai, S., and Jiao, Z. (1984). “Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Short Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns.” Journal of Building Structures, 13–29. (in Chinese)
Cai and Gu 1985 26 CCFT C+PBC
  • Cai, S. H., and Gu, W. L. (1985). “Behavior and Ultimate Strength of Long Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns.” Journal of Building Structures, 32–40. (in Chinese)
Sakino et al. 1985 10 CCFT C+PBC
  • Sakino, K., Tomii, M., and Watanabe, K. (1985). “Sustaining Load Capacity of Plain Concrete Stub Columns Confined by Circular Steel Tube.” Proceedings 1st ASCCS International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Harbin, China, 112–118.
Lin 1988 18 Total
  • 6 CCFT C+PBC
  • 12 RCFT C+PBC
  • Lin, C. Y. (1988). “Axial Capacity of Concrete Infilled Cold-Formed Steel Columns.” Ninth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A., 443–457.
  • The steel yield stress is not listed explicitly in the original report. It was computed from data given in the original report as 2.5 tonnes/cm^2
Shakir-Khalil and Zeghiche 1989 5 RCFT C+PBC
  • Shakir-Khalil, H., and Zeghiche, J. (1989). “Experimental Behaviour of Concrete-Filled Rolled Rectangular Hollow-Section Columns.” The Structural Engineer, 67, 346–53.

1990s

Author and year Number of specimens References Notes
Shakir-Khalil and Mouli 1990 15 RCFT C+PBC
  • Shakir-Khalil, H. and Mouli, M. (1990). “Further Tests on Concrete-Filled Rectangular Hollow-Section Columns,” The Structural Engineer, 68(20), 405-413.
Cai 1991 27 CCFT C+PBC
  • Cai, S.-H. (1991). “Influence of Moment Distribution Diagram on Load-Carrying Capacity of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Wakabayashi, M. (ed.), Fukuoka, Japan, September 26-29, 1991, Association for International Cooperation and Research in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, pp. 113-118.
Luksha and Nesterovich 1991 10 CCFT C+PBC
  • Luksha, L. K., and Nesterovich, A. P. (1991). “Strength of Tubular Concrete Cylinders under Combined Loading.” Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Fukuoka, Japan, 67–71.
Masuo et al. 1991 10 CCFT C+PBC
  • Masuo, K., Adachi, M., Kawabata, K., Kobayashi, M., and Konishi, M. (1991). “Buckling Behavior of Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tubular Columns Using Light-Weight Concrete.” Proceedings 3rd ASCCS International Conference on Composite Construction, Fukuoka, Japan, 95–100.
  • Strength results are the mean value of 2 or 3 duplicate specimens.
Sakino and Hayashi 1991 12 CCFT C+PBC
  • Sakino, K., and Hayashi, H. (1991). “Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Stub Columns under Concentric Loading.” Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Fukuoka, Japan, 25–30.
Chen, Astaneh-Asl, & Moehle 1992 7 SRC C+PBC
  • Chen, C., Astaneh-Asl, A., and Moehle, J. P. (1992). “Behavior and Design of High Strength Composite Columns.” Structures Congress ’92, ASCE, San Antonio, Texas, 820–823.
Han, Kim, & Kim 1992 10 SRC C+PBC
  • Han, D. J., Kim, P. J., and Kim, K. S. (1992). “The Influence of Hoop Bar on the Compressive Strength of Short Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns.” Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 12(1), 335–338.
Rangan and Joyce 1992 9 CCFT C+PBC
  • Rangan, B. V., and Joyce, M. (1992). “Strength of Eccentrically Loaded Slender Steel Tubular Columns Filled With High-Strength Concrete.” ACI Structural Journal, 89(6), 676–681.
Bergmann 1994 6 Total
  • 2 CCFT C+PBC
  • 4 RCFT C+PBC
  • Bergmann, R. (1994). “Load introduction in composite columns filled with high strength concrete.” Tubular Structures VI, Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Tubular Structures, Melbourne, Australia, 373–380.
Fujii 1994 15 CCFT C+PBC
  • Fujii, K. (1994). “Structural and Ultimate Behavior of Two Types of Mortar Filled Steel Tubes in Compression.” Proceedings of the 4th ASCCS International Conference, Košice, Slovakia, 194–197.
Kenny et al. 1994 6 CCFT C+PBC
  • Kenny, J. R., Bruce, D. A., and Bjorhovde, R. (1994). “Removal of Yield Stress Limitation for Composite Tubular Columns.” Engineering Journal, AISC, 31(1), 1–11.
Han & Kim 1995 20 SRC C+PBC
  • Han, D. J., and Kim, K. S. (1995). “A Study on the Strength and Hysteretic Characteristics of Steel Reinforced Concrete Columns.” Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea, 11(4), 183–190.
Matsui and Tsuda 1996 48 Total
  • 24 CCFT C+PBC
  • 24 RCFT C+PBC
  • Matsui, C., and Tsuda, K. (1996). “Strength And Behavior Of Slender Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns.” Proceedings of The Second International Symposium on Civil Infrastructure Systems, P. T. Y. Chang, L. W. Lu, and L. Wei, eds., Hong Kong, China.
O'Shea and Bridge 1997 7 CCFT C+PBC
  • O’Shea, M. D., and Bridge, R. (1997). Tests on Circular Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Filled with Very High Strength Concrete. Research Report No. R754, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
  • Includes only tests not listed in O'Shea and Bridge 2000
Schneider 1998 14 Total
  • 3 CCFT C+PBC
  • 11 RCFT C+PBC
  • Schneider, S. P. (1998). “Axially Loaded Concrete-Filled Steel Tubes.” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 124(10), 1125–1138.
Kilpatrick and Rangan 1999 40 CCFT C+PBC
  • Kilpatrick, A. E., and Rangan, B. V. (1999). “Tests on High-Strength Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns.” ACI Structural Journal, 96(2), 268–274.
Tan et al. 1999 18 CCFT P+PBC
  • Tan, K., Pu, X., and Cai, S. (1999). “Study on the Mechanical Properties of Steel Extra-high Strength Concrete Encased in Steel Tubes.” Journal of Building Structures, 20(1), 10–15. (in Chinese)

2000s

Author and year Number of specimens References Notes
Han and Yan 2000 11 CCFT C+PBC
  • Han, L.-H., and Yan, S.-Z. (2000). “Experimental Studies on the Strength with High Slenderness Ratio Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Column.” Composite and Hybrid Structures, Proceedings of the Sixth ASCCS International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Los Angeles, California, 419–425.
Johansson et al. 2000 1 CCFT C+PBC
  • Johansson, M., Claeson, C., Gylltoft, K., and Akesson, M. (2000). “Structural Behavior of Circular Composite Columns Under Various Means of Load Application.” Composite and Hybrid Structures, Proceedings of the Sixth ASCCS International Conference on Steel-Concrete Composite Structures, Los Angeles, California, 427–434.
  • Strength results are the mean value of 3 similar specimens.
O'Shea and Bridge 2000 38 CCFT C+PBC
  • O’Shea, M. D., and Bridge, R. Q. (2000). “Design of Circular Thin-Walled Concrete Filled Steel Tubes.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 126(11), 1295–1303.
  • O’Shea, M. D., and Bridge, R. (1997a). Tests on Circular Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Filled with Medium and High Strength Concrete. Research Report No. R755, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
  • O’Shea, M. D., and Bridge, R. (1997b). Tests on Circular Thin-Walled Steel Tubes Filled with Very High Strength Concrete. Research Report No. R754, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Varma 2000 12 Total
  • 4 RCFT C+PBC
  • 8 RCFT Other
  • Varma, A. H. (2000). “Seismic Behavior, Analysis, and Design of High Strength Square Concrete Filled Steel Tube (CFT) Columns,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, November.
Yamamoto et al. 2000 21 Total
  • 13 CCFT C+PBC
  • 8 RCFT C+PBC
  • Yamamoto, T., Kawaguchi, J., and Morino, S. (2000). “Experimental Studies of Scale Effects on the Compressive Behavior of Short Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns.” Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete IV, Proceedings of the United Engineering Foundation Conference on Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete IV, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 879–890.
  • Yamamoto, T., Kawaguchi, J., and Morino, S. (2002). “Experimental Study of the Size Effect on the Behavior of Concrete Filled Circular Steel Tube Columns Under Axial Compression.” Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, (561), 237–244.
Elchalakani et al. 2001 12 CCFT Beams
  • Elchalakani, M., Zhao, X. L., and Grzebieta, R. H. (2001). “Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Tubes Subjected to Pure Bending.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 57(11), 1141–1168. doi:10.1016/S0143-974X(01)00035-9
Johansson and Gylltoft 2002 1 CCFT C+PBC
  • Johansson, M., and Gylltoft, K. (2002). “Mechanical Behavior of Circular Steel–Concrete Composite Stub Columns.” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 128(8), 1073–1081.
  • Strength results are the mean value of 3 similar specimens.
Chen and Hikosaka 2003 17 CCFT C+PBC
  • Chen, B.-C., and Hikosaka, H. (2003). “Eccentricity Ratio Effect on the Behavior of Eccentrically Loaded CFST Columns.” Proceedings ASSCCA’03 International Conference Advances in Structures (ASCCS-7), Sydney, Australia, 973–978.
Gopal and Manoharan 2003 3 CCFT C+PBC
  • Gopal, S. R., and Manoharan, P. D. (2003). “Structural Behavior of Slender Steel Tubular Columns Infilled with Fibre Reinforced Concrete.” Proceedings ASSCCA’03 International Conference Advances in Structures (ASCCS-7), Sydney, Australia, 871–875.
Han & Yang 2003 8 RCFT C+PBC
  • Han, L. H., and Yang, Y. F. (2003). “Analysis of thin-walled steel RHS columns filled with concrete under long-term sustained loads.” Thin-Walled Structures, 41(9), 849–870.
Han & Yao 2003 42 Total
  • 23 CCFT C+PBC
  • 19 RCFT C+PBC
  • Han, L. H., and Yao, G. H. (2003). “Behaviour of concrete-filled hollow structural steel (HSS) columns with pre-load on the steel tubes.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 59(12), 1455–1475. doi:10.1016/S0143-974X(03)00102-0
  • The CCFT specimens were originally reported by Zha (1996).
Mursi et al. 2003 4 RCFT C+PBC
  • Mursi, M., Uy, B., and Bradford, M. A. (2003). “Interaction Buckling of Concrete Filled Columns Using High Strength Steel.” Proceedings ASSCCA’03 International Conference Advances in Structures (ASCCS-7), Sydney, Australia, 863–869.
Uenaka et al. 2003 3 CCFT C+PBC
  • Uenaka, K., Hayami, M., Kitoh, H., and Sonoda, K. (2003). “Experimental Study on Concrete Filled Double Tubular Steel Columns under Axial Loading.” Proceedings ASSCCA’03 International Conference Advances in Structures (ASCCS-7), Sydney, Australia, 877–882.
Fujimoto et al. 2004 65 Total
  • 33 CCFT Other
  • 21 RCFT C+PBC
  • 11 RCFT Other
  • Fujimoto, T., Mukai, A., Nishiyama, I., and Sakino, K. (2004). “Behavior of Eccentrically Loaded Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns.” Journal of Structural Engineering, 130(2), 203. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:2(203)
Ghannam et al. 2004 36 Total
  • 12 CCFT C+PBC
  • 24 RCFT C+PBC
  • Ghannam, S., Jawad, Y. A., and Hunaiti, Y. (2004). “Failure of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns,” Steel and Composite Structures, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 1-8.
Giakoumelis and Lam 2004 13 CCFT C+PBC
  • Giakoumelis, G., and Lam, D. (2004). “Axial Capacity of Circular Concrete-Filled Tube Columns.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 60(7), 1049–1068. doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2003.10.001
Han and Yao 2004 38 Total
  • 22 CCFT C+PBC
  • 16 RCFT C+PBC
  • Han, L. H., and Yao, G. H. (2004). “Experimental Behaviour of Thin-Walled Hollow Structural Steel (HSS) Columns Filled with Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC).” Thin-Walled Structures, 42(9), 1357–1377. doi:10.1016/j.tws.2004.03.016
Lam and Williams 2004 15 RCFT C+PBC
  • Lam, D., and Williams, C. A. (2004). “Experimental Study on Concrete Filled Square Hollow Sections.” Steel and Composite Structures, 4(2), 95–112.
Sakino et al. 2004 84 Total
  • 36 CCFT C+PBC
  • 48 RCFT C+PBC
  • Sakino, K., Nakahara, H., Morino, S., and Nishiyama, I. (2004). “Behavior of Centrally Loaded Concrete-Filled Steel-Tube Short Columns.” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 130(2), 180–188. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:2(180)
Zhang and Guo 2007 26 RCFT C+PBC
  • Zhang, S., and Guo, L. (2007). “Behaviour of high strength concrete-filled slender RHS steel tubes.” Advances in Structural Engineering, 10(4), 337–351.

2010s

Author and year Number of specimens References Notes
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