S.B. (Mechanical Engineering)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1999
M.Eng. (Biomedical Engineering)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2001
Ph.D. (Biomedical Engineering)
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2006
Albert Einstein College of Medicine and
CUNY City College of New York, 2007-2012
The primary focus of our research is to study the means by which endothelial cell mechanotransduction occurs in order to prevent or promote atherosclerosis. We are applying engineering to study the structure and function of the endothelial cell surface glycocalyx that directly interfaces with flowing blood and sheds in the presence of atherosclerosis. We are using cryopreservation (rapid freezing/freeze substitution) and transmission electron microscopy to define the ultrastructure of the endothelial surface glycocalyx and its changes as a result of the macro- or micro-vessel origin and due to the bio-chemical and -mechanical environment. RNA interference techniques, fluorescent intracellular biomarkers, fluorescence confocal microscopy, and protein biochemistry are applied to further clarify the mechanisms by which various flow patterns impact endothelial cell surface glycocalyx ultrastructure, its transduction of fluid forces into biological responses, and its role in vascular health or disease. In vivo studies are performed using high fat fed apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice, a well-established animal model of atherosclerosis, to determine which glycocalyx components can be targeted to prevent, diagnose, or treat atherosclerosis.
- Vascular Mechanotransduction and Mechanobiology
Ebong EE, Depaola N. Specificity in the participation of connexin proteins in flow-induced endothelial gap junction communication. Pflugers Arch. 2013 Apr 9
Thi, M. M., Ebong, E.E., Spray, D.C., Suadicani, S.O. Interaction of the Glycocalyx with the Actin Cytoskeleton. In: Ed., Dermietzel R (ed.), Neuromethods, Springer Publishing, 2013 January; 79: 43-62.
Zeng, Y., Ebong, E.E., Fu, B.M., Tarbell, J.M. The Structural Stability of the Endothelial Glycocalyx after Enzymatic Removal of Glycosaminoglycans. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(8): e43168. Epub 2012 Aug 14.
Ebong, E.E., Macaluso F., Spray D.C., and Tarbell J.M. Imaging the Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro by Rapid Freezing/Freeze Substitution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Aug; 31(8):1908-15. Epub 2011 Apr 7.
Ebong, E.E., Macaluso F., Spray D.C., and Tarbell J.M. Life-like Preservation and TEM visualization of the glycocalyx reveals that it is substantial in vitro. Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE 37th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2011 April 1-3, 1-2.
Tarbell J.M. and Ebong, E.E. Endothelial Glycocalyx Structure and Role In Mechanotransduction. In: Hsiai T.K., Blackman B., and Jo H. (eds.), Hemodynamics and Mechanobiology, World Scientific Publishing, 2010 October; 69-96.
Ebong E.E., Spray D.C., Tarbell J.M. The Endothelial Glycocalyx In Vitro: Its Structure and The Role of Heparan Sulfate and Glypican-1 in eNOS Activation by Flow. FASEB J. 2010 April 24 (Meeting Abstract Supplement); 784.8.
Ebong E.E.,SprayD.C., Tarbell J.M. The endothelial glycocalyx: Its structure and role in eNOS mechano-activation. Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE 36th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2010 March 26-28, 1-2.
Ebong E.E., Spray D.C., Tarbell J.M. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx layer in transducing fluid shear stress into intracellular signaling events. Biorheology, 2008, 45(1-2): 66-67.
Tarbell J.M., Ebong E.E. The endothelial glycocalyx: a mechano-sensor and –transducer. Science Signaling. 2008 Oct 7; 1(40):pt8.
Ebong, E.E., Kim S., and DePaola N. Flow Regulates Intercellular Communication in HAEC by Assembling Functional Cx40 and Cx37 Gap Junctional Channels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 May; 290(5):H2015-23. Epub 2005 Dec 16.