Work Your Side Hustle

iPhone Photography

Life is more than the office and it lives outside the 9 to 5 hours. Sometimes we forget that the work can (and maybe should) end once you leave and head home. But not all work is, well, work. Let me explain..

When you’re working on something you are passionate about, how often do you lose track of time? Is there a passion or activity or thing outside of your day job that makes you happy and that you love to put work into? That is what I like to call your “side hustle”.

Side hustles come in a thousand forms. Whether you’re a yoga teacher after work hours, run a fashion blog, or have a passion for Instagramming the world around you — Congrats! You’ve found your side hustle.

But what’s the benefit of working on something that’s not, well, work? Let’s dive in:

Expand Your Creativity. By working on something other than your day-to-day, you can find yourself thinking and working in new ways. Injecting this newfound creativity into your work life can help you stand out in the workplace and develop new innovations or solutions.

Stress Relief. Sometimes it is hard to forget about that deadline or looming project, but when you have a task or passion outside of the workplace, you can shift gears and focus. Taking your mind off of your work can help to ease any stresses and let you come to work the next day fresh and ready to tackle any project.

Networking Outside Your Field. Getting out of the workplace for your networking can grow your horizons and reach beyond your field. If you’re an Instagrammer, for instance, going to an Instagram meetup and photo event can introduce you to great contacts in various walks of life and careers. It’s a great way to dive deeper into your side hustle and to meet people with similar passions, no matter their career field.

So, find your passion and get going on your own side hustle!

Tatum Hartwig is a senior Communication Studies major with minors in Business Administration and Media & Screen Studies. Tatum brings experience and knowledge in the world of marketing and public relations from her two co-ops at Wayfair and New Balance. Her passion revolves around growing businesses via social media, brand development, and innovation. You can connect with Tatum on Twitter @tatumrosy and LinkedIn.

How professional organizations can help you

black-and-white-city-man-peopleDo you know about professional associations, and how valuable they can be as both educational and networking tools?

A professional association is a non-profit group formed of individuals from a specific career or range of careers that focuses on education, training, and networking within their field. The goal of the association and its members typically is to keep up-to-date with new practices in the field, share ideas, and network with each other. Most associations have regular membership meetings, panel discussions, formal trainings by experienced members in the field, and social events. Many even have groups on LinkedIn, and sometimes you can join the LI group without being a dues-paying member of the larger organization.

Professional associations can be a powerful tool during your job search and ongoing career development. Not only do you learn more about the trends and topics in the field, but it’s a great opportunity to meet other professionals, and build or strengthen your network. Members often share job leads with the group, and are willing to give direct insight on potential positions. You can also find individuals who may be willing to meet with you for informational interviews, and advise you on your job search.

Many professional associations also have information on their website specifically for students or those exploring the field, and some even have events specifically targeted to students. For example, the New England Human Resources Association offers an annual career panel for students considering the human resources profession, and the American Institute of Graphic Artists typically hosts a portfolio review for soon-to-be or new college grads.  Most associations also offer discounted membership rates for students.

Ultimately, it’s a convenient way to meet multiple people from your field of interest.  Expanding your connections with professional peers is essential to your job search success, both in terms of their general advice and the potential to help you get your foot in the door of a particular company or job.

To find professional organizations in your field, try Googling “professional association” and your major or career path, for example, marketing, chemistry, nursing, etc.

Tina Mello is Associate Director of University Career Services, and has worked at Northeastern for over 10 years. Nicknamed the “information guru” by other members of the staff, she loves to research and read about various job/career/education topics. For more career advice, follow her on twitter @CareerCoachTina.

Networking for Internationals (and Non-Internationals, too)

Two People Coffee Notebook

A few weeks ago I went to an interesting workshop for International Students where I learn a lot about NETWORKING. I know that many of us do not like networking…. Who likes to talk to a bunch of people they haven’t met in their life? No one. But the true is that NETWORKING is the way most people (in this case students) might find a job or at least can make a good connection. You never know, you can find a mentor or a friend, as well as good ideas and new perspectives about life and careers. The fact is that even though networking can be tough, it can be fun too.

I would like to share with you a few tips that I learn from Joselin Mane, a Social Media Strategist and Networking Guru. In his workshop Networking 2.0, I learned new things I never imagined would work to get to know new people.

First of all, we should start working with our Personal Brand. Create an original business card. Using a picture might be informal but it will make people remember you. Think about it, if you were at an event with 50 different business cards in your hand, you would really want to remember peoples’ faces. On the other hand, we should create a website (just a short bio is enough). Many of us have LinkedIn accounts, of course, but remember that recruiters will Google you, and the more information they find, the better. You can use free websites such as www.about.me or another websites builder such as www.wix.com

Other useful things:

  1. When meeting people, use something that won’t make them forget you. Example: flower in hair, special pin, etc. Use something colorful. Have you been to a career fair? Everyone is dressed in black and white! Its time to differentiate ourselves.
  2. Take pictures or selfies. Take this advice with precaution. Do it when you feel is right because the idea is making a good impression.
  3. Send those pictures in the follow up e-mail. Send a follow up email immediately. Don’t let them forget you.
  4. Practice your elevator speech as much as you can. Try to be natural and fluent.
  5. If you need to use a name tag, use it in your left side. They will see it better.
  6. If you engaged in a conversation remember people’s name. Everyone loves to be called by their names.
  7. Connect with people before the event when possible. Use social media.
  8. Reactivate your Twitter account (if it is a professional one), and put it on you name tag.
  9. Google yourself. Let’s see what the internet says about you.
  10. Join professional groups.

The idea of Networking is meeting new people to create a relationship that might benefit both of them. We just need to be ourselves acting naturally. We are not born to be liked by everyone, so don’t panic if someone ignores you.

If you want to know more about Networking, please visit Joselin Mane website http://bostontweetup.com/


Maria Martin is pursuing a Master in Project Management at Northeastern University. She is passionate about helping others in their personal and professional life. She is currently doing a full time paid co-op at Eversource in the Marketing and Sales Department. You can contact her at mariajesusmartin13@gmail.com

Networking Isn’t Just For LinkedIn

Two CoffeesEveryone will pound into your head one thing as you begin your career journey — network. Okay, we get it, but how exactly do I network? Surprisingly, it’s more than clicking a few buttons on LinkedIn.

Put yourself out there and ask your coworker out for a midday coffee. Maybe strike up a conversation with the guy on the other side of the office from you that you bump into on the elevator. Do something more than the one time hello followed up by the instant LinkedIn request. Your network should exist outside of a computer screen and truly be your support both inside and outside of the workplace.

While large crowds at corporate networking events may not be your thing, the value of making face-to-face connections should always be in mind. By getting to know someone and forming that relationship can be a powerful tool. Sure, they could search their LinkedIn contacts for someone with experience in X, Y, or Z… Or you could be the person that jumps to their mind because of a conversation you had over lunch one day. Which seems like the more powerful connection?

So, put your smartphone down and make some time to truly develop a connection with someone. When it comes to your network, it should be quality over quantity.

Tatum Hartwig is a 4th year Communication Studies major with minors in Business Administration and Media & Screen Studies. Tatum brings experience and knowledge in the world of marketing and public relations from her two co-ops at Wayfair and New Balance. Her passion revolves around growing businesses via social media, brand development, and innovation. You can connect with Tatum on Twitter @tatumrosy and LinkedIn.

 

 

How to End Your Co-op Strong

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The time has come where students are starting to end their co-ops. If you’re on a four month co-op, like I am, you might only have a few weeks left before you say goodbye to your coworkers and head back to school. So how do you end your co-op strong and make the most of your last few weeks or months?

Don’t slack off.

Just because you’re almost done doesn’t mean it’s time to stop doing your job. In fact, this is the time to really step up your game and get the most out of the end of your experience. You want to make sure you don’t leave with any regrets. Ask to attend those meetings you’ve been nervous to attend so far. After four months on the job, you know a lot about your work culture and how your organization runs. If it’s appropriate, your supervisor will be glad you’re showing initiative and you’ll get to learn that much more about your workplace.

Make sure you finish out all your work.

Before you leave your co-op, make sure that your supervisor knows the status of all your projects. You don’t want to be that person who leaves with all their work half-finished. Not only will this leave your office in a state of limbo, but it will also leave them with a bad impression of you.

Finish networking with your co-workers.

Is there that one person you’ve wanted to meet all semester and haven’t had a chance to yet? Reach out to them in your last few weeks! Take full advantage of the resources your co-workers can give you before you leave. Even though you can always get in touch with them once your co-op is over, it makes things a lot easier when your cubicles are down the hall from each other! And don’t forget to get the contact information of your supervisor and other colleagues in case you need a reference in the future. Make sure they’re okay with being a reference and know of your plans once you go back to school so calls from future employers don’t startle them later on.

Lastly, don’t be sad you’re leaving – be glad you were able to spend such a long time in a great position!

You’ve successfully finished another co-op and definitely learned some valuable skills! Whether your co-op helped you solidify your career path (as mine did!) or helped you decide what you don’t want to do in the future, you surely learned a lot about yourself and the industry you worked in. Soak in that knowledge and let it guide you as you decide what your next step is. And make sure you say thank you to everyone you worked with along the way (and handing out handwritten thank you cards on your last day never hurts)!

 

Rose Leopold is a third-year political science major currently on international co-op with the U.S. Department of State at the U.S. Embassy in Quito, Ecuador. Prior to this experience, Rose spent her first co-op in the office of Senator Elizabeth Warren in Washington, D.C. Follow Rose’s adventures through her blog justsittingontopoftheworld.wordpress.com and on Instagram.

What is the Professional Etiquette for an Informational Interview?

This guest post was written by Heather Fink, a former Career Development Intern now working at Wellesley College and the Hiatt Career Center at Brandeis University. She is a graduate student in the College Student Development and Counseling program at NU expected to graduate in May 2015.

So everyone has been telling you that in order to further your career goals, you have to network. Here are some tips on how to keep it professional and ensure success during informational interviews. If you are unsure of what an informational interview is, feel free to check our website for more information about it.

source: staples.com

source: staples.com

Come prepared!

If someone is willing to meet with you for an informational interview, you should come prepared with questions. Consider what you want to learn from the person you are meeting with and bring a pen and notepad to take notes during the meeting.

The questions you ask should be tailored for the person you are meeting with. The questions also should not be information that can be easily found on the Internet, such as where they have worked in the past (which is often on their LinkedIn profile) or what their job title is. Instead use the time to ask questions that are more in depth or are difficult to find out online. You may want to ask about industry trends or what that company seems to look for in their employees.  Be sure to refer to our blog post Strategies for Researching Companies for more advice on that.

Dress Code:

Depending on the field, an informational interview doesn’t necessarily require a suit but if you think that a Boston Bruins shirt is appropriate for an informational interview, you are mistaken. Remember that although a suit isn’t mandatory, you want the person you are networking with to take you seriously and should dress accordingly. Business casual is appropriate for an informational interview. Avoid the jeans and instead stick with slacks or a dress skirt with a sweater, blouse or button down shirt on top. This shows that you’re taking the meeting seriously. Also be sure to wear a watch to keep track of the time, you are conducting the informational interview and should make sure that you don’t make the contact run late for their next meeting.

thank you note ecard

I thanked the contact in person should I bother writing a thank you letter?

Thanking someone in person does not supplement a thank you letter. If someone is taking time out of their day to speak with you and provide advice for your career advancement, than you should take the time to write them a thank you letter. Send the contact you met with a thank you note (via email or snail mail) within 24 hours thanking them for their time. The best way to show your appreciation is to mention something you learned from the meeting so the contact feels the advice they gave was helpful.

Afterwards….

Keep in touch! Networking isn’t about contacting someone once, it is about expanding your professional network. Send the contact emails every few months with articles related to your field or mention updates if you took their advice and was successful from doing so.

Another way to keep in touch is to ask the person you meet with for suggestions of who else you should contact for an informational interview. This increases your chances of someone’s willingness to meet with you since you now have a mutual connection.  If you end up meeting with someone your contact suggested, let the contact know that their advice was helpful. This enables you to stay in touch with the contact and lets them know that their referral was helpful.

Heather Fink is a former Career Assistant at Northeastern Career Development and now currently works as the Interim Asst. Director at the Wellesley College Career Center and as a Career Counseling Assistant at the Hiatt Career Center at Brandeis University. SHe has a passion for networking and empowering others and is pursuing her graduate degree in College Student Development Counseling. Follow Heather on Linkedin at www.linkedin.com/in/HeatherFink and Twitter @CareerCoachHF. 

Keeping a Mentor, and Being a Great Mentee

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The biggest piece of advice I received when arriving at Northeastern my freshman year was, “find a mentor.” And this advice seemed to come from everyone- whether they be professors, advisors, friends, or sorority sisters. Finding a mentor is a process on its own, however, once you have found one it is just as important to maintain your mentor-mentee relationship. Here are some tips for sustaining a meaningful relationship with your mentor, and being a phenomenal, unforgettable mentee.

1. Be open.

This is not to say that a mentor should know every detail about you or your personal life. However, a mentor cannot guide you unless they know where you want to go. Be open about your goals, aspirations and dreams, and just be yourself. Remember that this goes both ways- so listen to what your mentor says about themselves. The more you both understand about each other, the more successful and purposeful your relationship will be.

2. Questions, questions, questions.

Many mentees feel as though it is impressive to constantly keep up with their mentor. However, this “fake it until you make it” attitude actually benefits you the least. Don’t forget why you sought out your mentor in the first place- to learn, grow and move forward in your field or in your studies. Embrace curiosity, and take advantage of your mentor’s knowledge and experience.

3. Be prepared.

Before any meeting with your mentor, keep these things in mind: What are your goals for this meeting? What questions do you have for your mentor? What needs to be done on your end, and what needs to be done on their end? Having a list of concrete objectives and actions when meeting with your mentor can go miles- it shows that you find your mentor important, and find their time and energy important as well.

4. Reciprocate.

Reciprocation is absolutely key to any relationship, and especially important in a mentor-mentee relationship. No mentor wants to feel taken advantage of or taken for granted. Watch the amount of time and effort your mentor puts into helping you, and give them that same time and effort back- and then some. Being a great mentee means valuing and respecting your mentor, and all that they do for you.

How Can I Really Improve My English Skills During College?

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This guest post was written by Maria Martin, an international graduate student currently on co-op.

When I fist came to Boston, about three years ago, I started to study English and I spent a considerably part of my time and money in writing, listening, speaking and grammar classes. I don’t regret what I did. But after being here for a while, I realized that the best way to learn English is through real experience with Americans. Here are a few tips that will help you to improve your overall English skills without spending tons of extra money and time.

1. Talk to your professors.

Do not be afraid to ask as many questions as you can during classes (what’s the worst thing that can happen? Nothing!). Many international students do not raise their hands because they do not have the words to say what they are thinking. Don’t be afraid. If you already got into college, then you are capable to find the words even if you make mistakes.

2. Volunteer.

I love to volunteer. There is nothing as gratifying as helping others. There are a lot of positive aspects of volunteering; first: you are helping someone, second: you can use it in your resume (for those who have no experience at all), third: it helps to improve your English skills. Boston has plenty of organizations you can work with. Google them, ask your advisor for help or connect with the Center for Community Service on campus. For example: I am volunteering as a Mentor in the Big Sister Association of Boston.

3. Mentors.

In my first year in Boston I found a really good person who mentored me for a few months while transitioning from my English course into my Master’s program. We spent hours and hours talking about a variety of subjects, and even thought it was difficult for me to understand, I tried my best to keep track of our conversations. Now, I can understand my friend perfectly and I can talk as if it were my own language. I encourage you to find a mentor in your area of study. There are a lot of professional organizations that offer mentorship programs, one being the Boston Product Management Association. Speaking with your mentor not only will help you to improve your English skills but also your career and networking.

4. Wise commuting.

Most of our commuting time is spent on our phone texting, listening music, etc. but do you think that this is worth your time? Why don’t we listen to NPR (National Public Radio) or read one of your favorite books in English? We need to realize that we have a barrier: language. So we should do everything we can to reach our goal. And if your goal is just going back to your home country as soon as you graduate, it will be pretty good to have a resume with a working professional proficiency level of English. On the other hand, if you are planning to get a job, well spoken English is a must.

5. Follow your instincts.

Most professionals recommend avoiding talking in your native language in order to perfect your English, but I believe that is a not realistic advice and honestly just 0.0001% of students apply it. It’s important to talk to friends and family back home and when living abroad, its comforting if not necessary to hang out with friends who share the same language and cultures as yourself. The key is to have balance. Make practicing and improving English a priority, but also make time to speak in your native tongue.

6. Small talk.

Every culture has its own small talk topics when networking. In my country, talking politics is common- that’s not the case in the US. There are plenty of topics you can talk about in American culture.

One of the most important: weather. It might not seem too interesting and very broad but Americans love talking about the weather- how can you not bring up the blizzard we just had?! Another topic: sports. Personally, I think talking about sports is boring. I know all of the major American teams and I can muster basic small talk around sports, but nothing too deep. If you don’t feel attracted to those topics you might want to get the Metro Boston Newspaper (Free in most MBTA stations) or just go to CNN.com. Small talk will help you make new friends and learn more about American culture- while simultaneously practicing your English!

7. Change your devices. 

Finally, change all your devices to English. Your phone, ipad, computer, etc. Everything should be in English. And be careful: Do not get use to just one American friend; there are a lot of accents (even inside Massachusetts).

Implement all of my tips, or start with just one that works for you. In a few months you will be able to understand and speak better. There are things that can’t be taught; practice is the only way to achieve what we really want.

Maria Martin is pursuing a Master in Project Management at Northeastern University. She is currently doing a full time paid co-op at NSTAR in the Marketing and Sales Department. You can contact her at mariajesusmartin13@gmail.com

LinkedIn is More Than a Recruiting Tool

LinkedIn is typically stereotyped as a recruiting platform for where you should upload your resume when you’re on the job hunt.  Sure, this may be the case at one point but over the years LinkedIn has grown to be way more than that. Your LinkedIn profile is a major component to your personal brand and you should give it the same tender love and care that you do for your Facebook page, maybe even a little more. I say this because typically the first thing that comes up when I google someone’s name is a link to their LinkedIn profile page. This isn’t by coincidence either, it’s a partly due to Google’s search algorithm that pushes SEO and Social content to the top of the search results page.

LinkedIn

So now what? You might be wondering what the purpose is for LinkedIn other than getting noticed by recruiters. Well, LinkedIn has grown into a special community for professionals and industry leaders to play and connect online. Taking full advantage of LinkedIn’s features will really help establish yourself as an expert, build your network, and impress your future employer.

Here are 5 ways to build your brand by using LinkedIn. 

  1. Start with the basics:  Make sure you have a good profile picture that represents you professionally. Edit your headline, work summary, work experiences, and add a memorable background picture or cover image. Don’t just copy and paste your resume on your LinkedIn profile. Use this space to show your creativity while maintaining your professionalism. Make your headline sound attractive, unique, and thoughtful. You want to call out your value proposition and what you have to offer in your work summary. For your work summary, I recommend summarizing your experience in bullets or in one paragraph. Don’t leave it blank. A blank work summary can come off as lazy.
  2. Share content:  It’s not enough to just update your profile, you need to share meaningful and thoughtful content that pertains to your audience.  Are you going to be a marketer, finance wiz or health professional? It might be wise to start reading industry related sites or blogs and share them on your profile. By continuously sharing meaningful content, you are showing your network and potential employers that you’re educating yourself on industry trends and topics.
  3. Don’t just be a microphone, engage with your connections: While it is important to share great content, definitely don’t limit yourself to that one action. With so many automated sharing content tools, it’s easy to tell who has gotten lazy. Laziness weakens your credibility. You want to engage in conversations with your connections by either commenting or liking their posts.
  4. Join A Group: Are you an aspiring journalist? There’s a LinkedIn Group for that. A business and finance professional? There’s a group for that! LinkedIn Groups are a special place that caters to a niche audience where you can ask questions and engage with people in the field. Joining a group can also lead to great connections. For instance, a great group for Womens Professional is Connect: Professional Women’s Network, Powered by Citi.
  5. Get with the Pulse: Pulse is LinkedIn’s blogging platform and anyone is allowed to post on there. I recommend writing about the industry to help add credibility to your personal brand. This will help you build a following and strengthen your networks.  Also if a potential employer is asking you for a writing sample, you can easily just link them to your Pulse articles.

Start Early and Set Yourself Apart: An Interview With an NU Alum

Jay Lu received his BSBA in Accounting and Marketing in May 2014 and MS in Accounting this past August, 2014. During his time at NU, he held numerous positions both on and off campus and internationally. Jay successfully completed three separate co-ops at large multinational companies with experience in audit and assurance, tax and operations. Jay recently completed the CPA exam and his currently working in audit and assurance at a CPA firm. In his spare time, he enjoys volunteering, reading and sports. To learn more about his professional background- check out his LinkedIn profile.

When did you first come to the Career Development office?

It was for the Career Fair, freshmen year.

Why go to a career fair? Most freshmen would wait until later for this.

I had no risk.  I didn’t feel pressured.  I didn’t need anything out of it.  I wanted the practice of the experience. It’s kind of like a festival, with everyone dressed up.  It can be a fun event when there isn’t pressure.  I didn’t have a suit back then.  But I went in and just talked with a couple of recruiters.  At this point I didn’t have a resume.  But later on I learned how to create a resume, and how to make a good impression.

What else did you do early on?

Early on I went for an appointment about career direction.  I wasn’t sure how to explore my options.  Through my career counselor I learned about informational interviews.  In fact I even did one for an RA position.  Ended up getting the job because I was more prepared and had someone recommending me from the info interview.  I also got into LinkedIn early on.

From these early experiences, what do you recommend that students do in their 1st or 2nd year?

Don’t think that just because it’s your first year that you have all the time in the world.  You’ll be graduating in a flash.  When you start early, you’ll be ahead for when you need it. When there is less pressure, when you don’t need a job yet, get advice then.

How can students have an impact on potential employers?

A lot of employers want to know if you want them.  It’s not just about your skills.  To stand out, make a good impression early on with them. Be genuinely interested in the field, which should be a natural feeling if you chose a major you are passionate about. Have people warm up to you, and your personal brand early on, even if you might not be fully certain what that is yet.  The idea here is to build your network before you need it.  Things get a lot more competitive, when you are a senior.  Everyone is going after these connections.  By starting early you can set yourself apart. They will be impressed that you are being so proactive.  Another point is that there is more leeway if you mess up, employers will more likely overlook this when you are younger.

How can students make more employer connections?

Go to career services and alumni events.  Do these while you are still on campus.  Once you graduate, it’s harder to fit these in.  Also, the further along you get in college, there are more expectations put on you (from recruiters, parents, peers), compared with when you are in your 1st or 2nd year.

What can you gain from this early networking?

When you chat with recruiters, they might open you up to other career paths that you didn’t know about or hadn’t thought of.  The more exposure and more conversations, the better.  You can never know what you’re going to do, exactly, but you can learn more early on to help.  It’s great if you can find out sooner what you might value in a career, while you can still make changes to your academic or co-op path.  You might save yourself time and heartache.  The more people you talk to, the more confident you’ll be with your choices.  You want to find those people that are in your potential career path, since they’ve already been there and you can learn from them.  Would you want to be in their shoes? Talking to them gives you a chance to find out.

During your senior year, how did you approach your job search?

I didn’t have too much trouble.  I had already been to 3 or 4 career fairs, and I already had quite a few connections from co-ops and various other events. If you have done everything early on, at this point it should be a relaxing year. At my last career fair, I received an interview call in less than an hour after the fair ended.

How do you maintain your network?

Always follow up after any professional encounter. Send a thank-you note after meeting someone at a campus event or any professional encounter.  For example, after attending the Global Careers Forum I sent an email to one of the guest speakers saying thank you.  I didn’t ask for anything in that moment. It might come later. Northeastern makes sending thank-you letters after co-op interviews almost religious, I try to use this same mindset. I always like to think of the story of one interviewee’s thank-you letter being a PowerPoint that showed how he would tackle a current problem facing the company. Now that’s hitting the ground running!

Is there anything you wished you’d known sooner?

Don’t take your professors for granted.  They can be some of the best resources.  They are there for you, and they want to help you.  I made a habit of seeing my professors every semester, even just to chat with them (while you are in the course and sometimes even after).  One professor sent me details about an internship that had been sent in by an alum.  I was given the details about this opportunity because the professor knew me well, and he had confidence in me. In addition, if I had more time, I would’ve joined more organizations that were related to my major.

Anyone you stay in touch with?

One of my accounting professors I went to see a lot.  He had great industry advice about how to get started, he recommended good organizations, and even suggested events to attend.  I sent follow up messages to thank him and to let him know I attended the events he had mentioned, I also shared some information that I thought would be useful for his current students.  It’s important to let people know that you followed their advice, and if you have something you can share, then include it.

What’s your finally advice to students, especially when it comes to networking?

Start early and don’t stop.